Population growth resilience reflects the level of resilience of population growth in the countries along the belt and road, and the higher the value, the stronger the resilience of population growth in the countries along the belt and road. The data on the resilience of population growth is prepared by referring to the World Bank's statistical database, using the year-on-year changes in the population of countries along the Belt and Road from 2000 to 2019, taking into account the year-on-year changes in each indicator, and through comprehensive diagnosis based on sensitivity and adaptability analysis. The resilience of population growth product.
Retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs) are slope failures caused by the thawing of ice-rich permafrost. Once developed, they usually retreat at high speeds (meters to tens of meters) towards the upslope direction, and the mudflow may destroy infrastructure and release carbon stored in frozen ground. RTSs are frequently distributed in permafrost areas and increase dramatically but lack investigation. Qinghai Tibet Engineering Corridor crosses the permafrost, links the inland and the Tibet. However, in this critical area, we lack knowledge of the distribution and impact of RTSs. To compile the first comprehensive inventory of RTSs, this study uses an iterative semi-automatic method based on deep learning and manual inspection to delineate RTSs in 2019 images. The images from PlanetScope CubeSat have a resolution of 3 meters, have four bands, cover a corridor area of approximately 54,000 square kilometers. The method combines the high efficiency and automation of deep learning and the reliability of the manual inspection to map the entire region ninth, which minimize the missings and misidentification. The manual inspection is based on geomorphic features and temporal changes (2016 to 2020) of RTSs. The inventory which includes 875 RTSs with their attributes, including identification, Longitude and Latitude, possibilities and time, provides a benchmark dataset for quantifying permafrost degradation and its impact.
XIA Zhuoxuan, HUANG Lingcao, LIU Lin
A long-term (1980-2017) land evaporation (E) product with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. This is a merged product from three model-based E products using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) method which minimizes errors. These include the fifth-generation ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA5), the second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA2), and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). To facilitate user-friendly access and download the dataset is stored individually for each year in a separate file. These files contain daily and monthly mean data (e.g., REA_1980_day.nc and REA_1980_mon.nc). The dataset is stored in NetCDF format, containing the variable E, representing land evaporation, produced in millimeters (mm) as a unit. There are three dimensions included in the dataset: longitude, latitude, and time, with the longitude ranging from -179.875E to 179.875E, the latitude from -59.875N to 89.875N. Complete time coverage is from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2017.
LU Jiao, WANG Guojie, CHEN Tiexi, LI Shijie, HAGAN Daniel, KATTEL Giri, PENG Jian, JIANG Tong, SU Buda
Near-surface air temperature variability and the reliability of temperature extrapolation within glacierized regions are important issues for hydrological and glaciological studies that remain elusive because of the scarcity of high-elevation observations. Based on air temperature data in 2019 collected from 12 automatic weather stations, 43 temperature loggers and 6 national meteorological stations in six different catchments, this study presents air temperature variability in different glacierized/nonglacierized regions and assesses the robustness of different temperature extrapolations to reduce errors in melt estimation. The results show high spatial variability in temperature lapse rates (LRs) in different climatic contexts, with the steepest LRs located on the cold-dry northwestern Tibetan Plateau and the lowest LRs located on the warm-humid monsoonal-influenced southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Near-surface air temperatures in high-elevation glacierized regions of the western and central Tibetan Plateau are less influenced by katabatic winds and thus can be linearly extrapolated from off-glacier records. In contrast, the local katabatic winds prevailing on the temperate glaciers of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau exert pronounced cooling effects on the ambient air temperature, and thus, on-glacier air temperatures are significantly lower than that in elevation-equivalent nonglacierized regions. Consequently, linear temperature extrapolation from low-elevation nonglacierized stations may lead to as much as 40% overestimation of positive degree days, particularly with respect to large glaciers with a long flowline distances and significant cooling effects. These findings provide noteworthy evidence that the different LRs and relevant cooling effects on high-elevation glaciers under distinct climatic regimes should be carefully accounted for when estimating glacier melting on the Tibetan Plateau.
This data is the simulated data of glacier distribution in the alpine region of Asia since the last glacial maximum, It includes the annual resolution glacier area change sequence of typical regions (High mountain Asia, Tianshan Mountains, Himalayas and Pamir Plateau) and typical periods (LGM (20000 ~ 19000ka), HS1 (17000 ~ 16000ka), BA (~ 14900 ~ 14350ka), yd (12900 ~ 12000ka), eh (9500 ~ 8500ka), MH (6500 ~ 5500ka), LH (3500 ~ 2500ka) and modern (1951 ~ 1990)) 1 km resolution glacier distribution in High Mountain Asia. This data are created by taking the trace full forcing simulation based on ccsm3 climate model as the external forcing field to drive the 1 km resolution PISM ice sheet model. This data can be used to study the changes of glacier distribution in the alpine region of Asia since the last glacial maximum and its impact on environmental and climatic factors such as lake water level, runoff and landform.
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is fundamental physiological variable driving the process of material and energy exchange, and is indispensable for researches in ecological and agricultural fields. In this study, we produced a 35-year (1984-2018) high-resolution (3 h, 10 km) global grided PAR dataset with an effective physical-based PAR model. The main inputs were cloud optical depth from the latest International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) H-series cloud products, the routine variables (water vapor, surface pressure and ozone) from the ERA5 reanalysis data, aerosol from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) products and albedo from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) product after 2000 and CLARRA-2 product before 2000. The grided PAR products were evaluated against surface observations measured at seven experimental stations of the SURFace RADiation budget network (SURFRAD), 42 experimental stations of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and 38 experimental stations of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN). The instantaneous PAR was validated at the SURFRAD and NEON, and the mean bias errors (MBEs) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 5.6 W m-2 and 44.3 W m-2, and 5.9 W m-2 and 45.5 W m-2, respectively, and correlation coefficients (R) are both 0.94 at 10 km scale. When averaged to 30 km, the errors were obviously reduced with RMSEs decreasing to 36.3 W m-2 and 36.3 W m-2 and R both increasing to 0.96. The daily PAR was validated at the SURFRAD, NEON and CERN, and the RMSEs were 13.2 W m-2, 13.1 W m-2 and 19.6 W m-2, respectively at 10 km scale. The RMSEs were slightly reduced to 11.2 W m-2, 11.6 W m-2, and 18.6 W m-2 when upscaled to 30 km. Comparison with the other well-known global satellite-based PAR product of the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) reveals that our PAR product was a more accurate dataset with higher resolution than the CRERS. Our grided PAR dataset would contribute to the ecological simulation and food yield assessment in the future.
The Central Asia Reanalysis (CAR) dataset is generated based on the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model version 4.1.2 and WRF Data Assimilation (WRFDA) Version 4.1.2. Variables include temperature,, pressure, wind speed, precipitation and radiation. The reanalysis is established through cyclic assimilation, which performs data assimilation every 6 hours by 3DVAR. The assimilated data include conventional atmospheric observation and satellite radiation data. The main source of conventional data is Global Teleconnection System (GTS), including surface station, automatic station, radiosonde and aircraft report, and the observation elements include temperature, air pressure, wind speed and humidity. Satellite observations include retrievals and radiation data, The retrievals are mainly atmospheric motion vectors from polar orbiting meteorological satellites (NOAA-18, NOAA-19, MetOP-A and MetOP-B) and resampled to a horizontal resolution of 54km; the radiation data includes microwave radiation from MSU, AMSU and MHS and HIRS infrared radiation data. The simulation applies nesting with a horizontal resolution of 27km and 9km respectively, a total of 38 layers in the vertical direction and a top of the model layer of 10hPa. The lateral boundary conditions of the model are provided by ERA-Interim every 6 hours. The physical schemes used in the model are Thompson microphysics scheme, CAM radiation scheme, MYJ boundary layer scheme, Grell convection scheme and Noah land surface model. The data covers five countries in Central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, as well as lakes in Central Asia, such as Caspian Sea, Aral Sea, Balkash lake and Isaac lake, which can be used for the study of climate, ecology and hydrology in the region. Compared with gauge-based precipitation in Central Asia, the simulation by CAR shows similar performance with MSWEP ( a merged product) and outperforms ERA5 and ERA-Interim.
Qiangyong glacier: 90.23 °E, 28.88° N, 4898 m asl. The surface is bedrock. The record contains data of absolute pressure and water temperature. Data from the automatic water gauge was collected using USB equipment at 12:00 on June 15, 2021, with a recording interval of one hour, and data was downloaded at 12:00 on Nov. 2, 2021. There is no missing data. Jiagang glacier: 88.69°E, 30.82°N, 5362 m asl. The surface is rubble and weeds. The record contains data of absolute pressure and water temperature. Data from the automatic water gauge was collected using USB equipment at 20:00 on June 19, 2021, with a recording interval of one hour, and data was downloaded at 11:00 onSept 18 , 2021. There is no missing data.
This dataset covers the 2017 sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, PM2.5 emissions grid list of Pan-third polar regions (South Asia: Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives; Central Asia: Turkistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan; Josiah: Iran, Iraq, azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, yemen, bahrain, Qatar, Oman, united Arab emirates, Kuwait, Lebanon, Cyprus). The emission inventory is derived from the data set publicly available in IIASA network. By using ArcGIS software technology, the emission inventory is processed into a GRID data set of 50km*50km, whose quality can be guaranteed. The data can be used by modelers to further study climate and air quality in the third polar region.
This data set includes grid emission inventories of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and PM2.5 in 2019 in China's third polar region (Tibet, Xinjiang, Yunnan and Qinghai). The emission inventory comes from the emission inventory database of the research group of Professor Wang Shuxiao of Tsinghua University. The emission inventory is processed into a 1km * 1km grid dataset by using ArcGIS software technology. The basic data of emission calculation is calculated by the emission factor method based on public data collection, satellite observation data and literature collection. The data are from the data of the National Bureau of statistics and the statistical yearbook of other industries, and its quality can be guaranteed. The data can be used for further study of climate and air quality in the third polar region.
Simulation results of four cmip6 models in 2015-2100 under the scenario of shared socio-economic path (SSP) 5-8.5. The selection standard is that the resolution of the four modes is less than 1 °, and there are daily data. Eight variables representing extreme climate are extracted from the original simulation results, which are the extremely high value of daily maximum temperature (TXX), the extremely high value of daily minimum temperature (TNX), the extremely low value of daily maximum temperature (TxN), the extremely low value of daily minimum temperature (TNN), the number of continuous dry days (CDD), the number of continuous wet days (CWD), precipitation intensity (SDII) and the number of heavy precipitation days (r20mm). The time resolution of the data is years, the spatial range is the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and the time range is 2015-2100.
ZHANG Ran ZHANG Ran
Based on the data of Gaogao No. 1 and No. 2 in China from 2019 to 2020, the freeze-thaw disaster distribution data of Qinghai Tibet project corridor is produced by using the deep learning classification method and manual visual interpretation and correction. The geographical range of the data is 40km along the Xidatan Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway. The data include the distribution data of thermal melting lakes and ponds and the distribution data of thermal melting landslides. The data set can provide data basis for the research of freeze-thaw disaster and engineering disaster prevention and reduction in Qinghai Tibet engineering corridor. The spatial distribution of freezing and thawing disasters within 40km along the Xidatan Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway is self-made based on the domestic gaogao-2 image data. Firstly, the deep learning method is used to extract the mud flow terrace block from Gaogao No. 2 data; Then, ArcGIS is used for manual editing. During the production process, the operators are required to strictly abide by the operation specifications, and a special person is responsible for the quality review.
NIU Fujun, LUO Jing LUO Jing
The data set mainly includes the investigation data set of geological disasters, pavement diseases and bridge and culvert diseases along Qinghai Tibet highway g109, Qinghai Tibet railway and Xinzang highway G219. The investigation time is August 12, 2020 - August 19, 2020, and July 26, 2021 - August 15, 2021. The survey objects are South Asia channel and Himalayan Mountain project. The types of diseases investigated mainly include geological disasters induced by freeze-thaw (rockfall, dangerous rock mass, debris flow gully and debris slope), pavement crack diseases, loose diseases, pit diseases, subgrade deformation diseases, bridge and culvert diseases, etc. The method of manual investigation shall be adopted to observe the damage of various diseases, and the quantity (range), damage degree and location of various damage types of pavement, bridge and culvert and geological disasters shall be recorded in detail as required. The data set can provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of the freeze-thaw diseases of South Asia channel and Himalayan mountain projects and related research.
Lake surface water temperature (LSWT) at Xiashe station from 1967 to 2020; Lake ice depth and lake ice duration at Xiashe station from 1994 to 2020; Runoff at Buha station from 1956 to 2020; Lake level at Xiashe station from 1956 to 2020; Lake area from 1956 to 2020 estimated from the correlation constructed between lake area derived from Landsat images and lake level from gauge measurements in 2001−2020; Air temperature (T) at Gangcha station from 1958 to 2019; Precipitation (P) at Gangcha station from 1958 to 2019
Surface melting is the primary reason that affects the mass balance of Greenland ice sheet. At the same time, ice and snow have high albedo, and ice sheet surface melting will cause the difference of radiation energy budget, and then affects the energy exchange between sea-land-air. The high-resolution ice sheet surface melting product provides important information support for the study of Greenland ice sheet surface melting and its response to global climate change. This dataset combined microwave radiometer product and optical albedo product, the daily, winter (June-August) averages and July averages of the former are used for layer-stacking, then Gram-Schmidt Spectral Sharpening was adapted to fuse the layer-stacking results with MODIS GLASS albedo product. The spatial resolution of fusion-results has been downscaled from 25 km to 0.05˚. By employing a threshold-based melt detection approach for each fusion-results pixel, Greenland ice sheet surface melt daily product for 1985, 2000, 2015 (DSSMIS) was generated. The spatial resolution of DSSMIS is higher than that of published data sets at home and abroad. Combined with the advantages of radiometer and albedo data, the spatial details characteristics are enhanced and consistent with the extraction range of the original radiometer products, effectively reducing the noise of the radiometer. DSSMIS’s data type is integer, where 1 is melted, 0 is not melted, 255 is masked area besides Greenland ice sheet, and the data set is stored as *.nc.
This data includes the land cover data of Central Asia, South Asia and Indochina Peninsula in the from 1992 to 2020 with a spatial resolution of 300mLand cover data includes 10 primary categories, which are combined from the secondary categories of the original data. The data source is the surface coverage product CCI-LC of ESA, where the spatial distribution of cropland, built-up land, and water for the land cover data from 1992 to 2020. Combined with the Tsinghua university global land cover data (FROM GLC, 30 m grid), NASA MODIS global land cover data (MCD12Q1, 500 m grid), the United States Geological Survey (USGS global land data (GFSAD30, 30 m), Japanese global forest data (PALSAR/PALSAR - 2, 25 m), the training sample dataset of land cover interpretation were built from the consistent areas of multiple products. The Google Earth Engine and random forest algorithm were used to correct the cropland, built-up land, and water of temporal CCI-LC data. Using the high resolution images in Google Earth at 2019 and 2020, the accuracy of change areas of cropland, built-up land, and water was validated by the stratified random sampling. A total of 3,600 land parcels were selected from 1,200 land parcels of the three land cover types, indicating that the accuracy of our corrected product increased in the range of 11% to 26% for the change areas compared to the CCI-LC product.
This is a comprehensive dataset on microbial abundance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and total nitrogen (TN) for glaciers on the TP based on extensive field sampling from 2010. The dataset comprises 5,409 microbial abundance records of ice cores and snow pits from 12 glaciers and 2,532 DOC and TN records of five habitats, including ice core, snow pit, surface ice, surface snow, and proglacial runoff, from 38 glaciers. These glaciers covered broad areas and diverse climate conditions with a multiyear average temperature ranging from -13.4 ℃ (the Guliya glacier) to 2.9 ℃ (the Zhuxigou glacier) and multiyear average precipitation ranging from 76.9 mm (the No.15 glacier) to 927.8 mm (the 24K glacier), which makes this dataset suitable for studies across the entire TP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first dataset of microbial abundance and TN in glaciers on the TP, and also the first dataset of DOC in ice cores on the TP. These new data could provide valuable information for researches on the glacier carbon and nitrogen cycle and assessing the potential impacts of glacier retreat due to global warming on downstream ecosystems.
1) The Qinghai Tibet plateau surface meteorological driving data set (2019-2020) includes four meteorological elements: land surface temperature, mean total precipitation rate, mean surface downward long wave radiation flux and mean surface downward short wave radiation flux. 2) The data set is based on era5 reanalysis data, supplemented by MODIS NDVI, MODIS DEM and fy3d mwri DEM data products. The era5 reanalysis data were downscaled by multiple linear regression method, and finally generated by resampling. 3) All data elements of the Qinghai Tibet plateau surface meteorological driving data set (2019-2020) are stored in TIFF format. The time resolution includes (daily, monthly and annual), and the spatial resolution is unified as 0.1 ° × 0.1°。 4) This data is convenient for researchers and students who will not use such assimilated data in. NC format. Based on the long-term observation data of field stations of the alpine network and overseas stations in the pan third pole region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third pole region are established; Complete the inversion of meteorological elements, lake water quantity and quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacier and frozen soil change and other data products through intensive observation in key areas and verification of sample plots and sample points; Based on the Internet of things technology, a multi station networked meteorological, hydrological and ecological data management platform is developed to realize real-time acquisition, remote control and sharing of networked data.
ZHU Liping, DU Baolong
This data set contains the high-resolution tropospheric nitrogen dioxide vertical column concentration pomino v2.1 data in East Asia from 2012 to 2020. It is a new version of the data after bug fix of v2.0.1, which provides an important data basis for studying the spatial distribution characteristics and temporal change trend of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide in China. Based on the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide slant column concentration provided by KNMI, the pomino tropospheric nitrogen dioxide vertical column concentration is calculated through the tropospheric AMF retrieval algorithm developed by ourselves. The comparison with the ground-based observation data shows that the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column concentration of pomino can better capture the day-to-day variation trend, and has better correlation with the ground-based observation data. At present, the data has been used for scientific research by many universities and scientific research institutions at home and abroad. In the future, the data set will provide more comprehensive data support for scientific research projects on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
Rainfall erosivity is one of the important basic data to quantify soil erosion in the Tibet Plateau. High precision rainfall erosivity data is the key to understand the current situation of soil and water loss in theTibet Plateau and formulate soil and water conservation measures. Meanwhile, it can provide a powerful reference for the prevention and control of geological disasters in the Tibet Plateau. Based on the 1-min dense precipitation observations and the grid precipitation product, a new annual rainfall erosivity dataset in Tibet Plateau from 1950 to 2020 is constructed through the steps of correction, reconstruction and validation. This dataset is the rainfall erosivity data set with the highest accuracy and the longest time series in the Tibet Plateau.
Contact SupportNorthwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS 0931-4967287 firstname.lastname@example.org
LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center
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