Large-ensemble simulations of the atmosphere-only time-slice experiments for the Polar Amplification Model Intercomparison Project (PAMIP) were carried out by the model group of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (FGOALS-f3-L). Eight groups of experiments forced by different combinations of the sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentration (SIC) for pre-industrial, present-day, and future conditions were performed and published. The time-lag method was used to generate the 100 ensemble members, with each member integrating from 1 April 2000 to 30 June 2001 and the first two months as the spin-up period. All of these model datasets will contribute to PAMIP multi-model analysis and improve the understanding of polar amplification.
CAS FGOALS-f3-H, with a 0.25° horizontal resolution, and CAS FGOALS-f3-L, with a 1° horizontal resolution, were forced by the standard external conditions, and two coordinated sets of simulations were conducted for 1950–2014 and 2015–50 with the Experiment IDs of ‘highresSST-present’ and ‘highresSST-future’, respectively. The model outputs contain multiple time scales including the required hourly mean, three-hourly mean, six-hourly transient, daily mean, and monthly mean datasets.
Meteorological elements of the dataset include the near-surface land-air exchange parameters, such as downward/upward longwave/shortwave radiation flux, momentum flux, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, etc. In addition, the vertical distributions of 3-dimensional wind, temperature, humidity, and pressure from the surface to the tropopause are also included. Independent evaluations were conducted for the dataset by comparison between the observational data and the most recent ERA5 reanalysis data. The results demonstrate the accuracy and superiority of this dataset against reanalysis data, which provides great potential for future climate change research.
LI Fei, Ma Shupo, ZHU Jinhuan, ZOU Han , LI Peng , ZHOU Libo
The Tibetan Plateau Subregional Dynamical Downscaling Dataset-Standard Year (TPSDD-Standard) is a high spatial-temporal resolution gridded dataset for the study of land-air exchange processes and lower atmospheric structure over the entire Tibetan Plateau, taking into account the climatic characteristics of each subregion of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on the 500 hPa multi-year average of the geopotential height field over the Tibetan Plateau, the year (2014) with the largest pattern correlation coefficient with this geopotential height field is selected as the standard year, which means that it can roughly reflect the multi-year average status of the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau. The temporal resolution of this data is 1 hour and the spatial resolution is 5 km. Meteorological elements of the dataset include near-surface land-air exchange parameters such as downward/upward long-wave/short-wave radiation fluxes, sensible heat fluxes, latent heat fluxes, etc. In addition, the 3-dimensional vertical distribution of wind, temperature, humidity, and pressure from the surface to the top of the troposphere is also included. The dataset was independently evaluated by comparing the observed data with the latest ERA5 reanalysis data. The results demonstrate the accuracy and superiority of the dataset, which offers great potential for future climate change studies.
LI Fei, Ma Shupo, ZHU Jinhuan, ZHOU Libo , LI Peng , ZOU Han
The extraction of glacier surface movement is of great significance in the study of glacier dynamics and material balance changes. In view of the shortcomings of the current application of autonomous remote sensing satellite data in glacier movement monitoring in China, the SAR data covering typical glaciers in alpine areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2019 to 2020 obtained under the GF-3 satellite FSI mode was used to obtain the glacier surface velocity distribution in the study area with the help of a parallel offset tracking algorithm. With its good spatial resolution, GF-3 image has significant advantages in extracting glacier movement with small scale and slow movement, and can better reflect the details and differences of glacier movement. This study is helpful to analyze the movement law and spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of glaciers in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau under the background of climate change.
The Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys ice velocity product is based on the Antarctic Ice Sheet Velocity and Mapping Project (AIV) data product, which is post-processed with advanced algorithms and numerical tools. The product is mapped using Sentinel-1/2/Landsat data and provides uniform, high-resolution (60m) ice velocity results for McMurdo Dry Valleys, covering the period from 2015 to 2020.
JIANG Liming JIANG Liming JIANG Liming
This data is the simulation of Antarctic sea ice density data from 2020 to 2100 under the medium emission scenario (ssp245) of the 6th International Coupled Model Comparison Program (CMIP6). The 25 mode data of CMIP6 were uniformly interpolated and then aggregated averaged. The size of sea ice density data is 0-1, the data time range is from January 2020 to December 2100, the time resolution is month, the spatial range is south of 45 ° S, and the spatial resolution is 1 ° × 1°。 This data provides the status and evolution of Antarctic sea ice under the medium emission scenario, and can provide reference for future changes in Antarctica.
LI Shuanglin, WANG Hui
The basic data of hydrometeorology, land use and DEM were collected through the National Meteorological Information Center, the Hydrological Yearbook, the China Statistical Yearbook and the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The distributed time-varying gain hydrological model with independent intellectual property rights is used for modeling, and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is divided into 10937 sub basins with a threshold of 100 square kilometers. In Heihe River, Yarlung Zangbo River, the source of Yangtze River, the source of Yellow River, Yalong River, Minjiang River and Lancang River basins, 14 flow stations were selected to observe the daily flow data to develop and verify the model. The daily scale Naxi efficiency coefficient is above 0.7, and the correlation coefficient is above 0.8. The precipitation and temperature data output from 13 models and 4 scenarios provided by CMIP6 are used to post process the future precipitation and temperature data. The post processed precipitation and temperature driven hydrological model simulates the water cycle process from 2046 to 2065, and gives the possible future spatial and temporal distribution of 0.1 degree daily scale runoff across the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
Based on the CMIP6 model data (see Table 1 for the model list), the distribution and thickness of frozen soil in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the circum Arctic region, as well as the terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux (total primary productivity GPP and ecosystem carbon source sink NEP) data in the frozen soil area under different climate change scenarios (including SSP126, SSP245 and SSP585) in the historical period (1990-2014) and the future (2046-2065) are estimated, with a spatial resolution of 1 ° × 1°。 Among them, the distribution of frozen soil is estimated under the future climate warming scenario by using the spatial constraint method (Chadburn et al., 2017), based on the probability of frozen soil occurrence under different temperature gradients at the current stage, and combined with the future temperature change simulated by the Earth system model. For the change of active layer thickness, the sensitivity of active layer thickness to temperature change estimated by remote sensing at this stage is used to constrain the change of active layer thickness simulated by the Earth System Model, so as to correct the error of the model in simulating the thickness of frozen soil active layer. The future permafrost carbon flux is the multi model ensemble average of the Earth system model simulation results. The simulation results show that the permafrost in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau will be significantly degraded under the future climate change scenario. With the future temperature rise, the continuous permafrost regions will be shown as carbon sources, but the temperature rise will promote the growth of vegetation, and the carbon sink capacity in the discontinuous permafrost regions will be enhanced. Similar to the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the permafrost around the Arctic will also be generally degraded in the future, and the future climate warming will promote the growth of vegetation in the Arctic, thus enhancing regional carbon sinks.
WANG Tao, LIU Dan , WEI Jianjun
Based on the 33rd Antarctic Scientific Expedition in China, the data set of temporal and spatial distribution of metal element concentrations in snow and ice obtained on the section from Zhongshan Station to Dome A in East Antarctica mainly includes: 1. A shallow ice core obtained 202 km away from Zhongshan Station. The ice core covers the period from 1990 to 2017 with a resolution of years, including metal element iron, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and other data. 2. Collect a sample every 10km along the Zhongshan Station Dome A section in East Antarctica. The metal elements include rare earth elements, barium and other elements. The data can be used to study the pollution and contribution of natural sources and human activities to Antarctic snow and ice.
Based on the data of GF-1 and GF-2 in China, the freeze-thaw disaster distribution data of Qinghai Tibet project corridor is produced by using the deep learning classification method and manual visual interpretation and correction. The geographical range of the data is 40km along the Xidatan Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway. The data include the distribution data of thermokast lakes and the distribution data of thermal melting landslides. The dataset can provide data basis for the research of freeze-thaw disaster and engineering disaster prevention and reduction in Qinghai Tibet engineering corridor. The spatial distribution of freezing and thawing disasters within 40km along the Xidatan-Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway is self-made based on the domestic GF-2 image data. Firstly, the deep learning method is used to extract the mud flow terrace block from GF-2 data; Then, ArcGIS is used for manual editing.
NIU Fujun, LUO Jing LUO Jing
This data is generated based on meteorological observation data, hydrological station data, combined with various assimilation data and remote sensing data, through the preparation of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau multi-level hydrological model system WEB-DHM (distributed hydrological model based on water and energy balance) coupling snow, glacier and frozen soil physical processes. The time resolution is monthly, the spatial resolution is 5km, and the original data format is ASCII text format, Data types include grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation in the month). If the asc cannot be opened normally in arcmap, please top the first 5 lines of the asc file.
WANG Lei, CHAI Chenhao
There are 396 temperature-sensitive proxy data for the past millennium over the Northern Hemisphere, including 370 tree rings, 15 ice cores, 9 lake sediments and 2 historical documents; This data is derived from the global temperature proxy dataset released by PAGES2k Consortum in 2017; During the process of temperature assimilation in the past millennium (1000-2000 AD) in the Northern Hemisphere, the data were further screened, and only the data with annual resolution were retained; The proxy data contained in the dataset have passed strict quality inspection and temperature signal verification; The data set can be used to reconstruct the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere at the hemispherical and regional scales for the past millennium.
This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation), simulated and output through the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the Indus River basin, with temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure, etc. as input data.
WANG Lei, LIU Hu
The ground-based observation dataset of aerosol optical properties over the Tibetan Plateau was obtained by continuous observation with a Cimel 318 sunphotometer, involving two stations: Qomolangma Station and Nam Co Station. These products have taken the process of cloud detection. The data cover the period from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021, and the time resolution is daily. The sunphotometer has eight observation channels from visible light to near infrared, and the central wavelengths are 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 940 and 1120 nm, respectively. The field of view angle of the instrument is 1.2°, and the sun tracking accuracy is 0.1°. Six bands of aerosol optical thickness can be obtained from direct solar radiation, and the accuracy is estimated to be 0.01-0.02. Finally, AERONET unified inversion algorithm was used to obtain the aerosol optical thickness, Ångström index, aerosol particle size distribution, single scattering albedo, phase function, complex refraction index and asymmetry factor.
Both a decrease of sea ice and an increase of surface meltwater, which may induce ice-flow speedup and frontal collapse, have a significant impact on the stability of the floating ice shelf in Greenland. However, detailed dynamic precursors and drivers prior to a fast-calving process remain unclear due to sparse remote sensing observations. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation on hydrological and kinematic precursors before the calving event on 26 July 2017 of Petermann Glacier in northern Greenland, by jointly using remote sensing observations at high-temporal resolution and an ice-flow model. Time series of ice-flow velocity fields during July 2017 were retrieved with Sentinel-2 observations with a sub-weekly sampling interval. The ice-flow speed quickly reached 30 m/d on 26 July (the day before the calving), which is roughly 10 times quicker than the mean glacier velocity.
Glaciers are sensitive to climate change. With global warming, the melting of glaciers continues to accelerate all over the world. Surging glaciers are glaciers with intermittent and periodic acceleration, which is a sensitive indicator of climate change. Based on Landsat and Sentinel satellite images from 1980s to 2020, the study area images were obtained by filtering, stitching, and cropping. Among them, the L1GS level images collected by Landsat TM sensor were geo-registered using a second-order polynomial, and the error of the geo- registered images was less than one pixel. After image template matching with an orientation correlation algorithm, this data set provides the surface ice flow velocity of a typical surging glacier in the Greenland ice sheet, Sortebræ Glacier in different period from 1980s to 2020. It is expected to contribute to the research on the surging process of Sortebræ Glacier and the discussion on the mechanism of glacier surging in the context of global warming.
QIAO Gang , SUN Zixiang , YUAN Xiaohan
Data content: money supply (2012-2021) and assets and liabilities of financial institutions (2007-2020) Data source and processing method: The original data of the third pole (China) banks and currencies from 2015 to 2021 were obtained from the official website of the World Bank and Sina.com, and the data set of the third pole (China) banks and currencies from 2012 to 2021 was obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data started from 2012 to 2021 in Microsoft Excel (xls) format. Data quality description: excellent Data application achievements and prospects: provide effective reference as socio-economic data
Data content: price index_ Consumer Price Index (CPI) (2009-2022) Data source and processing method: The original data of the third pole (China) price index economy from 2015 to 2022 were obtained from the official website of the World Bank and Sina.com, and the economic data set of the third pole (China) price index from 2009 to 2022 was obtained through data collation, screening and cleaning. The data started from 2009 to 2022 in Microsoft Excel (xls) format. Data quality description: excellent Data application achievements and prospects: provide effective reference as socio-economic data
Data content: annual statistics of gross domestic product (GDP) (1991-2021), domestic assets and liabilities data (2011-2020) and domestic input and output data (2012-2018) Data source and processing method: The original macroeconomic data of the third pole (China) from 2015 to 2021 were obtained from the official website of the World Bank and Sina.com, and the macroeconomic data set of the third pole (China) from 1991 to 2021 was obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data was stored in Microsoft Excel (xls) format. Data quality description: excellent Data application achievements and prospects: provide effective reference as socio-economic data
Data content: foreign economy and trade_ Total import and export of goods (1991-2021) Data source and processing method: The original data of foreign trade and investment of the third pole (China region) from 2015 to 2021 were obtained from the official website of the World Bank and Sina.com, and the data set of foreign trade and investment of the third pole (China region) from 1991 to 2021 was obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data started from 1991 to 2021 in Microsoft Excel (xls) format. Data quality description: excellent Data application achievements and prospects: provide effective reference as socio-economic data
This phenological data is based on the MOD13A2 data of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2000 to 2015 (with a temporal resolution of 16 days and a spatial resolution of 1km). The NDVI curve is fitted using the segmented Gaussian function in the TIMESAT software. The spring phenology, autumn phenology and the length of the growth season are extracted using the dynamic threshold method. The thresholds of spring phenology and autumn phenology are set to 0.2 and 0.7 respectively. The phenological data were masked. Among them, the mask rules are: 1) The maximum value of NDVI must be met between June and September; 2) The average value of NDVI from June to September shall not be less than 0.2; 3) The average NDVI in winter shall not exceed 0.3.
ZU Jiaxing , ZHANG Yangjian
This data set is the global vegetation productivity data, including total primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). It is simulated by BCC-ESM1 model in Phase 6 of the Coupling Model Comparison Plan (CMIP6) under the historical scenario. The data time range is 1850-2014, the time resolution is month, and the spatial resolution is about 2.8125 °. Analog Data Details Visible Link https://www.wdc-climate.de/ui/cmip6?input=CMIP6.CMIP.BCC.BCC -ESM1。
The feedback of the biosphere to the atmosphere is one of the core contents of global change research. When the atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, the behavior of the terrestrial ecosystem is the main uncertainty factor to predict this feedback effect. Elevated CO2 concentration (eCO2) can directly stimulate plant growth and ecosystem C absorption by increasing carboxylation and inhibiting photorespiration rate. Through the impact of CO2 fertilization effect (CFE) on photosynthesis and carbon sequestration, the terrestrial ecosystem can buffer the surge of atmospheric CO2 concentration, thereby slowing down climate change. In order to study the impact of CO2 enrichment on vegetation productivity, CO2 enrichment experiments were conducted at Naqu Grassland Station (31 ° 38 ′ 31 ″ N, 92 ° 00 ′ 54 ″ E, 4600m above sea level) in the north of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The test is designed in zones, with CO2 as the main treatment factor and N as the secondary treatment factor; A total of four experimental treatments span two CO2 concentration levels [ambient CO2 (aCO2), increased CO2 (eCO2):+100ppm]. Considering the low vegetation height and windy weather in the study area, octagonal open top chambers (OTCs) are used to control the carbon dioxide concentration, rather than the free FACE system. The design height of OTC is 2.5 meters, the length of each side is 1.5 meters, and each OTC occupies 7.7 square meters.
This data set is the daily vorticity related flux observation data of Naqu flux station (31.64 ° N 92.01 ° E, 4598 m a.s.l.), including ecosystem net ecosystem productivity (NEP), total primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) data. The main steps of data pre-processing include wild point removal (± 3 σ）、 Coordinate axis rotation (3D wind rotation), Webb Pearman Leuning correction, outlier elimination, carbon flux interpolation and decomposition, etc. Missing data are interpolated through the nonlinear empirical formula between CO2 flux value (Fc) and environmental factors.
Vegetation survey data is essential for the study of ecosystem structure and function. The Qinghai Tibet Plateau contains a vast grassland ecosystem, mainly including alpine meadow, alpine grassland, and alpine desertification grassland. Due to the unique geographical location and high altitude anoxic environmental conditions, the community survey data in the northern Tibetan Plateau is relatively scarce. This data set includes the aboveground biomass and coverage data of 47 sampling points on the northern Tibet transect in 2019, and the sampling time is from July to August. The sample size is 50cm × 50cm, dry weight of the plant is weighed after drying. This data set can be used for spatial analysis of productivity and calibration of models.
ZHANG Yangjian, ZHU Juntao
This dataset is the daily vorticity related flux observation data of Naqu flux station (31.64 ° N 92.01 ° E, 4598 m a.s.l.), including net ecosystem productivity (NEP), total primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), evapotranspiration, latent heat, sensible heat, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, soil temperature, soil moisture and other data. The main steps of data pre-processing include wild point removal (± 3 σ）、 Coordinate axis rotation (3D wind rotation), Webb Pearman Leuning correction, outlier elimination, carbon flux interpolation and decomposition, etc. Missing data are interpolated through the nonlinear empirical formula between CO2 flux value (Fc) and environmental factors.
This dataset is global respiration data, including autotrophic respiration (ra) and heterotrophic respiration (rh). It is simulated by TaiESM1 model in Phase 6 of the Coupling Model Comparison Plan (CMIP6) under historical scenarios. The data time range is 1850-2014, the time resolution is month, and the spatial resolution is about 0.9 ° x1.25 °. Analog Data Details Visible Link https://www.wdc-climate.de/ui/cmip6?input=CMIP6.CMIP.AS -RCEC.TaiESM1.historical。
Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI)
CMIP6 is the sixth climate model comparison plan organized by the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). Original data from https://www.wcrp-climate.org/wgcm-cmip/wgcm-cmip6 。 This dataset contains four SSP scenarios of Scenario MIP in CMIP6. (1) SSP126: Upgrade of RCP2.6 scenario based on SSP1 (low forcing scenario) (radiation forcing will reach 2.6W/m2 in 2100). (2) SSP245: Upgrade of RCP4.5 scenario based on SSP2 (moderate forcing scenario) (radiation forcing will reach 4.5 W/m2 in 2100). (3) SSP370: New RCP7.0 emission path based on SSP3 (medium forcing scenario) (radiation forcing will reach 7.0 W/m2 in 2100). (4) SSP585: Upgrade the RCP8.5 scenario based on SSP5 (high forcing scenario) (SSP585 is the only SSP scenario that can make the radiation forcing reach 8.5 W/m2 in 2100). Using GRU data to correct the post-processing deviation of the original CMIP data, the post-processing data set of monthly precipitation (pr) and temperature (tas) estimates from 2046-2065 was obtained, with a reference period of 1985-2014.
The data set of ecological adjustment value of Arctic permafrost change from 1982 to 2015, with the time resolution of 1982, 2015 and the change rate of two phases, covers the entire Arctic tundra area, with the spatial resolution of 8km. Based on multi-source remote sensing, simulation, statistics and measured data, and combined with GIS and ecological methods, it quantifies the adjustment service value of Arctic permafrost to the ecosystem, The unit price refers to the correlation (0.35) between the active layer thickness and NDVI changes after excluding precipitation and snow water equivalent, and the grassland ecosystem service value (the unit price of tundra ecosystem service is based on 1/3 of the grassland ecosystem service value).
The active layer thickness in the Wudaoliang permafrost region of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is retrieved based on the seasonal deformation obtained by SBAS-InSAR technology and ERA5-Land spatio-temporal multi-layer soil moisture data corrected by variational mode decomposition method. The time range of the is 2017-2020, and the spatial resolution is 1km. This data can be used to study the change of the active layer thickness in the permafrost region of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and analyze its interaction with climate change, water cycle and energy cycle. It is significance to understand the permafrost degradation, environment evolution and the impact of permafrost degradation on ecology and climate.
LU Ping , HAO Tong , LI Rongxing
The aerosol optical thickness data of the Arctic Alaska station is formed based on the observation data products of the US Department of Energy's atmospheric radiation observation program at the Arctic Alaska station. The data coverage time is from 1998 to 2020, the time resolution is hourly, the coverage site is the Arctic Alaska station, and the longitude and latitude coordinates are (71 ° 19 ′ 22.8 ″ N, 156 ° 36 ′ 32.4 ″ W). The observation data is obtained from the inversion of the radiation data observed by MFRSR instrument. The optical characteristic variable is aerosol optical thickness, and the observation inversion error range is about 15%. The data format is nc format.
The triple pole aerosol type data product is an aerosol type result obtained through a series of data pre-processing, quality control, statistical analysis and comparative analysis processes by comprehensively using MEERA 2 assimilation data and active satellite CALIPSO products. The key of the aerosol type fusion algorithm is to judge the aerosol type of CALIPSO. During the data fusion of aerosol type, the final aerosol type data (12 types in total) and quality control results in the three polar regions are obtained according to the types and quality control of CALIPSO aerosol types and referring to MERRA 2 aerosol types. The data product fully considers the vertical and spatial distribution of aerosols, and has a high spatial resolution (0.625 ° × 0.5 °) and time resolution (month).
Pine Island Glacier, Swett Glacier, etc. are distributed in the basins of the Antarctic Ice Sheet 21 and 22, which is one of the areas with the most severe melting in the Southwest Antarctica. This dataset first uses Cryosat-2 data (August 2010 to October 2018) to establish a plane equation in each regular grid, taking into account terrain items, seasonal fluctuations, backscattering coefficients, wave front width, lifting rails and other factors, and calculates the elevation change of ice cover surface in the grid through least square regression. In addition, we used ICESat-2 data (October 2018 to December 2020) to calculate the surface elevation change during the two periods by obtaining the elevation difference at the intersection of satellite lifting orbits in each regular grid. The spatial resolution of surface elevation change data in two periods is 5km × 5km, the file format is GeoTIFF, the projection coordinate is polar stereo projection (EPSG 3031), and it is named by the name of the satellite altimetry data used. The data can be opened using ArcMap, QGIS and other software. The results show that the average elevation change rate of the region from 2010 to 2018 is -0.34 ± 0.08m/yr, which belongs to the area with severe melting. The annual average elevation change rate from October 2018 to November 2020 is -0.38 ± 0.06m/yr, which is in an intensified state compared with CryoSat-2 calculation results.
YANG Bojin , HUANG Huabing , LIANG Shuang , LI Xinwu
Data content: Industrial added value of national economy (monthly) (2010-2021) Data source and processing method: obtain the original data of the third pole (China) industrial economy in 2010-2021 from the official website of the World Bank and Sina.com, and obtain the industrial economy data set in 2010-2021 (China) through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data starts from 2010 to 2021 in Microsoft Excel (xls) format. Data quality description: excellent Data application achievements and prospects: provide effective reference as social, industrial and economic data
The 0.1 º aerosol optical thickness dataset (also known as the "Poles AOD Collection 1.0" aerosol optical thickness (AOD) dataset) in the polar regions from 2000 to 2020 was produced by combining Merra-2 mode data and MODIS satellite sensor AOD. The data covers the period from 2000 to 2020, with a daily time resolution, covering the "tri polar" (Antarctic, Arctic and Qinghai Tibet Plateau) region, and a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree. The verification of the measured stations shows that the relative deviation of the data is within 35%, which can effectively improve the coverage and accuracy of AOD in the polar region.
GUANG Jie GUANG Jie
The Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor runs from Golmud to Lhasa. It passes through the core region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and is an important passage connecting the interior and Tibet. The active layer thickness (ALT) is not only an important index to study the thermal state of ground in permafrost region, but also a key factor to be considered in the construction of permafrost engineering. The core of GIPL1.0 is kudryavtesv method, which takes into account the thermophysical properties of snow cover, vegetation and different soil layers. However, Yin Guoan et al. found that compared with kudryavtesv method, the accuracy of TTOP model is higher, so they improved the model in combination with freezing / thawing index. Through verification of field monitoring data, it was found that the simulation error of ALT is less than 50cm. Therefore, the ALT in the Qinghai Tibet project corridor is simulated by using the improved GIPL1.0 model, and the future ALT under the ssp2-4.5 climate change scenario is predicted.
(1) Data content: the annual mean Northern Annular mode index and the Northern Annular mode index from 1500 to 2000; (2) Data source and processing method: this data is independently produced by the author. It is based on PAGES2k data set and reconstructed by machine learning model (random forest, extreme tree, Light GBM and catboost). (3) Data quality description: the data set has high consistency with multiple instrumental data during the observed period, and the reconstruction is better. The data can be used to study the change and mechanism of the main atmospheric circulation in the northern and southern hemispheres on multiple time scales (interannual, interdecadal and multidecadal).
We utilized 12 datasets covering the period 900–1999 CE, including two summer temperature gridded datasets from the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, two summer temperature series from the Arctic, a summer temperature gridded dataset from the Arctic, six global gridded annual temperature reconstruction datasets, and a last millennium reanalysis dataset with seasonal resolution. We used the optimal information extraction method to reconstruct the summer temperature anomalies in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Arctic over the past millennium (900–1999 CE) with annual resolution. The range of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is 27°N–36°N, 77°E–106°E, and the range of the Arctic is 60°N–90°N. The reconstruction target is the summer (June–August) temperature anomalies (with respect to 1961–1990 CE period) in the instrumental CRUTEM4v dataset. The data can be used to study the mechanism of temperature variability in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Arctic over the past millennium.
(1) Data content: data set of Antarctic sea ice extent (Northernmost Latitude of Sea Ice Edge (NLSIE) [°N]) in the past 200 years; (2) Data source and processing method: the data is generated based on the statistical model using six annual resolution proxies (ice core MSA, accumulation rate, etc.); (3) Data quality description: annual resolution; Areas: Indian and western Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean (50 ° – 150 ° E, indwpac), Ross Sea (160 ° E – 140 ° W, RS), Amundsen Sea (90 ° – 140 ° W, as), Bellingshausen Sea (50 ° – 90 ° W, BS), Weddell Sea (50 ° W – 20 ° E, WS); (4) It can be used to study the interdecadal variability of Antarctic sea ice.
As a huge elevated surface and atmospheric heat source in spring and summer, the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (TP) has an important impact on regional and global climate and climate. In order to explore the thermal forcing effect of TP, the sensitivity test data set of sensible heat anomaly on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau was prepared. This data includes three groups of sensitivity tests: (1) in the fully coupled model cesm1.2.0, the plateau sensible heat is stronger CGCM from March to may in spring_ lar_ mon_ 3-12-2.nc and plateau thermal sensitivity are weak (CGCM)_ sma_ mon_ 3-12-2. Sensitivity test of NC; (2) In the single general circulation model cam4.0, the sensible heat of the plateau is stronger in spring (March may)_ lar_ Mon 3-8.nc and low sensible heat cam_ sma_ Mon3-8.nc sensitivity test. Including: 3D wind, potential height, air temperature, surface temperature, specific humidity, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, precipitation and other conventional variables Space scope: global simulation results
The data is an excel file, which includes four tables named as follows: Altay Snow DOC Time Series, Altay Snow Pit Data, Altay Snow MAC (absorption section) and Central Asia Mos Island Glacier BC, OC, DUST Data. Altay snow DOC table includes seven columns including sample number, sampling date, sampling time, sampling depth, DOC-PPM, BC-PPb and TN-PPM, and 47 sample data. Altay snow pit table includes 8 columns including snow pit number, sample number, sampling date, sampling time, sampling depth, DOC-PPM, BC-PPb and TN-PPM, and 238 sample data. Altay snow MAC table includes: sampling time, MAC and AAE, a total of three columns, and 46 sample data. The BC, OC and DUST data tables of glaciers in Central Asia's Muse Island include 8 columns: code no (sample number), Latitude (latitude), Longitude (longitude),/m a.s.l (altitude), snow type (snow type), BC, OC and DUST, which are analyzed by sampling time. There are 105 rows of data in total. Abbreviation explanation: DOC: Dissolved Organic Carbon MAC: mass absorption cross section BC: black carbon DUST: Dust OC: Organic carbon TN: Total Nitrogen PPM: ug g-1 (microgram per gram) PPb: ng g-1 (nanogram per gram)
The alpine region of Asia is the third pole in the world, and it is called the "Asian water tower". Affected by climate warming, glaciers continue to lose money, which has profoundly changed the supply-demand relationship of glacial water resources. In order to systematically understand the response of glaciers to climate change, the project reveals the relationship between the change of glacier material balance and climate factors through the sensitivity of glacier material balance. The data includes two maps: the sensitivity distribution map of material balance to temperature and precipitation and the climate sensitivity zoning. In the past 70 years, there have been significant differences in the evolution sequence of glacier material balance among mountain systems in the high mountain region of Asia. The glaciers in the Karakoram and West Kunlun regions have shown a stable state, and the material balance is a weak positive balance, while the Himalayas, Tianshan and Qilian Mountains have shown an accelerated trend after 1990. This is mainly due to the sensitivity of material balance to temperature and precipitation. The monthly scale material balance model is driven by 0.5 ° resolution era5 temperature and precipitation data, and the material balance calibration parameters of 43 monitored glaciers are 1 ° from 2000 to 2016 × The parameters are spatially constrained by the 1 ° aster material balance data, and the material balance sequences of 95085 glaciers in the high mountain region of Asia from 1951 to 2020 are reconstructed by using the method of extrapolation of spatial parameters. The sensitivity of glacier material balance to temperature (± 0.5K, ± 1K, ± 1.5k) and precipitation (± 10%, ± 20%, ± 30%) is analyzed, In combination with the influencing factors of glacier material balance (distribution of summer temperature, ratio of summer precipitation, distribution of glacier types, distribution of clear sky solar radiation in summer, etc.), the glacial climate sensitivity in the high mountain region of Asia is classified and divided into four categories, as shown in Fig. 4: the main control area of air temperature: the temperature is the main control factor of glacier material balance change, and precipitation occupies a secondary position; Precipitation control area: the glacier is mainly controlled by precipitation, and the temperature in the glacier area is lower than 0 ° C throughout the year; Temperature and precipitation control area of accumulated glacier in winter: refers to that the glacier is mainly supplied by precipitation in winter, and the change of material balance of the glacier is the result of the joint action of temperature and precipitation; Summer cumulative glacier temperature and precipitation control area: refers to the supply mode of glacier is summer precipitation, and the material balance of glacier is the result of the joint action of temperature and precipitation.
The Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor runs from Golmud to Lhasa. It passes through the core region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and is an important passage connecting the interior and Tibet. As the primary parameter in the surface energy balance, the land surface temperature represents the degree of energy and water exchange between the earth and the atmosphere, and is widely used in the research of climatology, hydrology and ecology. The annual average surface land temperature is obtained by using the four day and night observations of Aqua and Terra. Therefore, the 8-day land surface temperature synthesis products MOD11A2 and MYD11A2 with a resolution of 1km were downloaded first, and then the data were batch projected by MRT (MODIS Reprojection Tool). Finally, the annual average MODIS land surface temperature data after 2010 was calculated by IDL.
The Qinghai Tibet Engineering Corridor starts from Golmud in the north and ends at Lhasa in the south. It passes through the core area of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and is an important channel connecting the mainland and Tibet. Permafrost temperature is not only an important index to study ground thermal state in permafrost regions, but also a key factor to be considered in permafrost engineering construction. The core of GIPL1.0 is the Kudryavtesv method, which considers the thermophysical properties of snow cover, vegetation and different soil layers. However, Yin found that compared with the Kudryavtesv method, the accuracy of TTOP model was higher. Therefore, the model was improved in combination with the freezing/thawing index. Through the verification of field monitoring data, it was found that the simulation error of permafrost temperature was less than 1 ℃. Therefore, the improved GIPL1.0 model is used to simulate the permafrost temperature of the Qinghai Tibet project corridor, and predict the future permafrost temperature under the SSP2-4.5 climate change scenario.
The dataset is the remote sensing image data ofGF-1 satellite in the Qinghai-Tibet engineering corridor obtained by China High Resolution Earth Observation Center. After the fusion processing of multispectral and panchromatic bands, the image data with a spatial resolution of 2 m is obtained. In the process of obtaining ground vegetation information, the classification technology of combining object-oriented computer automatic interpretation and manual interpretation is adopted, The object-oriented classification technology is to collect adjacent pixels as objects to identify the spectral elements of interest, make full use of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral data space, texture and spectral information to segment and classify, and output high-precision classification results or vectors. In actual operation, the image is automatically extracted by eCognition software. The main processes are image segmentation, information extraction and accuracy evaluation. After verification with the field survey, the overall extraction accuracy is more than 90%.
This data set includes five periods of lake transparency data, including 1995, 2002, 2005, 2010 and 2015. The data sources are: Landsat 5, Landsat 7 and Landsat 8. Method of use: It is convenient to measure the spectral reflectance. On the basis of analyzing the relationship between the spectral reflectance and the transparency measured synchronously, the semi empirical method is used to select the best band combination, establish the transparency algorithm of Qinghai Tibet Plateau lakes, and obtain the water transparency. The verification of measured points shows that the relative error of water transparency estimation is 35%.
This data includes bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence data from 25 lakes in the middle of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The sample was collected from July to August 2015, and the surface water was sampled three times with a 2.5 liter sampler. The samples were immediately taken back to the Ecological Laboratory of the Beijing Qinghai Tibet Plateau Research Institute, and the salinity gradient of the salt lake was 0.14~118.07 g/L. This data is the result of amplification sequencing. Concentrate the lake water to 0.22 at 0.6 atm filtration pressure μ The 16S rRNA gene fragment amplification primers were 515F (5 '- GTGCCAAGCCGCGGTAA-3') and 909r (5 '- GGACTACHVGGGTWTCTAAT-3'). The Illumina MiSeq PE250 sequencer was used for end-to-end sequencing. The original data was analyzed by Mothur software. The sequence was compared with the Silva128 database and divided into operation classification units (OTUs) with 97% homology. This data can be used to analyze the microbial diversity of lakes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
This data includes the distribution data of soil bacteria in Namco region of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which can be used to explore the seasonal impact of fencing and grazing on soil microorganisms in Namco region. The sample was collected from May to September 2015, and the soil samples were stored in ice bags and transported back to the Ecological Laboratory of Beijing Institute of Qinghai Tibet Plateau Research; This data is the result of amplification sequencing, using MoBio Powersoil ™ Soil DNA was extracted with DNA isolation kit, and the primers were 515F (5 '- GTGCCAAGCGCCGGTAA-3') and 806R (5'GGACTACNVGGGTWTCTAAT-3 '). The amplified fragments were sequenced by Illumina Miseq PE250. The original data is analyzed by Qiime software, and then the similarity between sequences is calculated, and the sequences with a similarity of more than 97% are clustered into an OTU. The Greengenes reference library is used for sequence alignment to remove the sequence that only appears once in the database. The soil moisture content and soil temperature were measured by a soil hygrometer, and the soil pH was measured by a pH meter (Sartorius PB-10, Germany). The soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3 −) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) concentrations were extracted with 2 M KCl (soil/solution, 1:5), and analyzed with a Smartchem200 discrete automatic analyzer. This data set is of great significance to the study of soil microbial diversity in arid and semi-arid grasslands.
Data on soil bacterial diversity of grassland in Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The samples were collected from July to August 2017, including 120 samples of alpine meadow, typical grassland and desert grassland. The soil surface samples were collected and stored in ice bags, and then transported back to the ecological laboratory of the Beijing Qinghai Tibet Plateau Research Institute. The soil DNA was extracted by MO BIO PowerSoil DNA kit. The 16S rRNA gene fragment amplification primers were 515F (5 '- GTGCCAAGCCGGTAA-3') and 806R (5 ´ GGACTACNVGGGTWTCTAAT-3 ´). The amplified fragments were sequenced by Illumina Miseq PE250. The original data is analyzed by Qiime software, and the sequence classification is based on the Silva128 database. Sequences with a similarity of more than 97% are clustered into an operation classification unit (OTU). This data systematically compares the bacterial diversity of soil microorganisms in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau transect, which is of great significance to the study of the distribution of microorganisms in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
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LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center
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