This data is generated based on meteorological observation data, hydrological station data, combined with various assimilation data and remote sensing data, through the preparation of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau multi-level hydrological model system WEB-DHM (distributed hydrological model based on water and energy balance) coupling snow, glacier and frozen soil physical processes. The time resolution is monthly, the spatial resolution is 5km, and the original data format is ASCII text format, Data types include grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation in the month). If the asc cannot be opened normally in arcmap, please top the first 5 lines of the asc file.
WANG Lei, CHAI Chenhao
This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation), simulated and output through the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the Indus River basin, with temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure, etc. as input data.
WANG Lei, LIU Hu
The basic data of hydrometeorology, land use and DEM were collected through the National Meteorological Information Center, the hydrological Yearbook, the China Statistical Yearbook and the Institute of geographical science and resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The distributed time-varying gain hydrological model (DTVGM) with independent intellectual property rights is adopted for modeling, and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is divided into 10937 sub basins with a threshold of 100 square kilometers. The daily flow data of 14 flow stations in Heihe River, Yarlung Zangbo River, Yangtze River source, Yellow River source, Yalong River, Minjiang River and Lancang River Basin were selected to draft and verify the model. The daily scale Naxi efficiency coefficient is above 0.7 and the correlation coefficient is above 0.8. The actual evaporation simulation is basically consistent with the station observation published by the Meteorological Bureau. The model simulates the water cycle process from 1998 to 2017. After verification, the spatial and temporal distribution of the actual evaporation (including soil evaporation and plant transpiration) on the 0.01 degree daily scale in the whole Tibetan Plateau is given.
The basic data of hydrometeorology, land use and DEM were collected through the National Meteorological Information Center, the hydrological Yearbook, the China Statistical Yearbook and the Institute of geographical science and resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The distributed time-varying gain hydrological model (DTVGM) with independent intellectual property rights is adopted for modeling, and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is divided into 10937 sub basins with a threshold of 100 square kilometers. The daily flow data of 14 flow stations in Heihe River, Yarlung Zangbo River, Yangtze River source, Yellow River source, Yalong River, Minjiang River and Lancang River Basin were selected to draft and verify the model. The daily scale Naxi efficiency coefficient is above 0.7 and the correlation coefficient is above 0.8. The model simulates the water cycle process from 1998 to 2017, and gives the spatial and temporal distribution of 0.01 degree daily scale runoff in the whole Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
The data set of bacterial post-treatment products and conventional water quality parameters of some lakes in the third pole in 2015 collected the bacterial analysis results and conventional water quality parameters of some lakes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau during 2015. Through sorting, summarizing and summarizing, the bacterial post-treatment products of some lakes in the third pole in 2015 are obtained. The data format is excel, which is convenient for users to view. The samples were collected by Mr. Ji mukan from July 1 to July 15, 2015, including 28 Lakes (bamuco, baimanamuco, bangoso (Salt Lake), Bangong Cuo, bengcuo, bieruozhao, cuo'e (Shenza), cuo'e (Naqu), dawaco, dangqiong Cuo, dangjayong Cuo, Dongcuo, eyaco, gongzhucuo, guogencuo, jiarehbu Cuo, mabongyong Cuo, Namuco, Nier CuO (Salt Lake), Norma Cuo, Peng yancuo (Salt Lake), Peng Cuo, gun Yong Cuo, Se lincuo, Wu rucuo, Wu Ma Cuo, Zha RI Nan Mu Cuo, Zha Xi CuO), a total of 138 samples. The extraction method of bacterial DNA in lake water is as follows: the lake water is filtered onto a 0.45 membrane, and then DNA is extracted by Mo bio powerOil DNA kit. The 16S rRNA gene fragment amplification primers were 515f (5'-gtgccagcmgcgcggtaa-3') and 909r (5'-ggactachvggtwtctaat-3'). The sequencing method was Illumina miseq PE250. The original data were analyzed by mothur software, including quality filtering and chimera removal. The sequence classification was based on the silva109 database. The archaeal, eukaryotic and unknown source sequences had been removed. OTU classifies with 97% similarity and then removes sequences that appear only once in the database. Conventional water quality detection parameters include dissolved oxygen, conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, redox potential, nonvolatile organic carbon, total nitrogen, etc. The dissolved oxygen is determined by electrode polarography; Conductivity meter is used for conductivity; Salinity is measured by a salinity meter; TDS tester is used for total dissolved solids; ORP online analyzer was used for redox potential; TOC analyzer is used for non-volatile organic carbon; The water quality parameters of total nitrogen were obtained by Spectrophotometry for reference.
The data set includes the observed and simulated runoff into the sea and the composition of each runoff component (total runoff, glacier runoff, snowmelt runoff, rainfall runoff) of two large rivers in the Arctic (North America: Mackenzie, Eurasia: Lena), with a time resolution of months. The data is a vic-cas model driven by the meteorological driving field data produced by the project team. The observed runoff and remote sensing snow data are used for correction. The Nash efficiency coefficient of runoff simulation is more than 0.85, and the model can also better simulate the spatial distribution and intra/inter annual changes of snow cover. The data can be used to analyze the runoff compositions and causes of long-term runoff change, and deepen the understanding of the runoff changes of Arctic rivers.
ZHAO Qiudong, WU Yuwei
This product provides the data set of key variables of the water cycle of major Arctic rivers (North America: Mackenzie, Eurasia: Lena from 1971 to 2017, including 7 variables: precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, underground runoff, glacier runoff, snow water equivalent and three-layer soil humidity, which are numerically simulated by the land surface model vic-cas developed by the project team. The spatial resolution of the data set is 0.1degree and the temporal resolution is month. This data set can be used to analyze the change of water balance in the Arctic River Basin under long-term climate change, and can also be used to compare and verify remote sensing data products and the simulation results of other models.
ZHAO Qiudong, WANG Ninglian, WU Yuwei
This product provides the data set of key variables of the water cycle of Arctic rivers (North America：Mackenzie, Eurasia：Lena) from 1998 to 2017, including 7 variables: precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, underground runoff, glacier runoff, snow water equivalent and three-layer soil humidity, which are numerically simulated by the land surface model vic-cas developed by the project team. The spatial resolution of the data set is 50km and the temporal resolution is month. This data set can be used to analyze the change of water balance in the Arctic River Basin under climate change, and can also be used to compare and verify remote sensing data products and the simulations of other models.
ZHAO Qiudong, WANG Ninglian, WU Yuwei
This product provides the monthly runoff, evapotranspiration and soil water of major Arctic river basins in 2018-2065 based on the land surface model Vic. The spatial accuracy is 10km. Major Arctic river basins include Lena, Yenisey, ob, Kolyma, Yukon and Mackenzie basins. According to the rcp2.6 (low emission intensity) and rcp8.5 (high emission intensity) scenario results provided by the ipsl-cm5a-lr model in cmip5 in the fifth assessment report of IPCC, the future climate scenario driving data applicable to the Arctic region of 0.1 ° is obtained through statistical downscaling. Using the calibrated land surface hydrological model Vic on a global scale, based on the future climate scenario driven data of 0.1 °, the monthly time series of runoff, soil water and evapotranspiration of the Arctic River Basin in the middle of this century under future climate change are estimated.
TANG Yin , TANG Qiuhong , WANG Ninglian, WU Yuwei
A long-term (1980-2017) land evaporation (E) product with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. This is a merged product from three model-based E products using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) method which minimizes errors. These include the fifth-generation ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA5), the second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA2), and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). To facilitate user-friendly access and download the dataset is stored individually for each year in a separate file. These files contain daily and monthly mean data (e.g., REA_1980_day.nc and REA_1980_mon.nc). The dataset is stored in NetCDF format, containing the variable E, representing land evaporation, produced in millimeters (mm) as a unit. There are three dimensions included in the dataset: longitude, latitude, and time, with the longitude ranging from -179.875E to 179.875E, the latitude from -59.875N to 89.875N. Complete time coverage is from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2017.
LU Jiao, WANG Guojie, CHEN Tiexi, LI Shijie, HAGAN Daniel, KATTEL Giri, PENG Jian, JIANG Tong, SU Buda
The SZIsnow dataset was calculated based on systematic physical fields from the Global Land Data Assimilation System version 2 (GLDAS-2) with the Noah land surface model. This SZIsnow dataset considers different physical water-energy processes, especially snow processes. The evaluation shows the dataset is capable of investigating different types of droughts across different timescales. The assessment also indicates that the dataset has an adequate performance to capture droughts across different spatial scales. The consideration of snow processes improved the capability of SZIsnow, and the improvement is evident over snow-covered areas (e.g., Arctic region) and high-altitude areas (e.g., Tibet Plateau). Moreover, the analysis also implies that SZIsnow dataset is able to well capture the large-scale drought events across the world. This drought dataset has high application potential for monitoring, assessing, and supplying information of drought, and also can serve as a valuable resource for drought studies.
WU Pute, TIAN Lei, ZHANG Baoqing
Surface soil moisture (SSM) is a crucial parameter for understanding the hydrological process of our earth surface. Passive microwave (PM) technique has long been the primary choice for estimating SSM at satellite remote sensing scales, while on the other hand, the coarse resolution (usually >~10 km) of PM observations hampers its applications at finer scales. Although quantitative studies have been proposed for downscaling satellite PM-based SSM, very few products have been available to public that meet the qualification of 1-km resolution and daily revisit cycles under all-weather conditions. In this study, therefore, we have developed one such SSM product in China with all these characteristics. The product was generated through downscaling of AMSR-E and AMSR-2 based SSM at 36-km, covering all on-orbit time of the two radiometers during 2003-2019. MODIS optical reflectance data and daily thermal infrared land surface temperature (LST) that have been gap-filled for cloudy conditions were the primary data inputs of the downscaling model, in order to achieve the “all-weather” quality for the SSM downscaling outcome. Daily images from this developed SSM product have achieved quasi-complete coverage over the country during April-September. For other months, the national coverage percentage of the developed product is also greatly improved against the original daily PM observations. We evaluated the product against in situ soil moisture measurements from over 2000 professional meteorological and soil moisture observation stations, and found the accuracy of the product is stable for all weathers from clear sky to cloudy conditions, with station averages of the unbiased RMSE ranging from 0.053 vol to 0.056 vol. Moreover, the evaluation results also show that the developed product distinctly outperforms the widely known SMAP-Sentinel (Active-Passive microwave) combined SSM product at 1-km resolution. This indicates potential important benefits that can be brought by our developed product, on improvement of futural investigations related to hydrological processes, agricultural industry, water resource and environment management.
SONG Peilin, ZHANG Yongqiang
As an important part of global semi-arid grassland, adequately understanding the spatio-temporal variability of evapotranspiration (ET) over the temperate semi-arid grassland of China (TSGC) could advance our understanding of climate, hydrological and ecological processes over global semi-arid areas. Based on the largest number of in-situ ET measurements (13 flux towers) within the TSGC, we applied the support vector regression method to develop a high-quality ET dataset at 1 km spatial resolution and 8-day timescale for the TSGC from 1982 to 2015. The model performed well in validation against flux tower‐measured data and comparison with water-balance derived ET.
The Tibet-Obs established in 2008 consists of three regional-scale soil moisture (SM) monitoring networks, i.e. the Maqu, Naqu, and Ngari (including Ali and Shiquanhe) networks. This surface SM dataset includes the original 15-min in situ measurements collected at a depth of 5 cm by multiple SM monitoring sites of all the networks, and the spatially upscaled SM records produced for the Maqu and Shiquanhe networks.
ZHANG Pei, ZHENG Donghai, WEN Jun, ZENG Yijian, WANG Xin, WANG Zuoliang, MA Yaoming, SU Zhongbo
Meteorological forcing dataset for Arctic River Basins includes five elements: daily maximum, minimum and average temperature, daily precipitation and daily average wind speed. The data is in NetCDF format with a horizontal spatial resolution of 0.083°, covering Yenisy, Lena, ob, Yukon and Mackenzie catchments. The data can be used to dirve hydrolodical model (VIC model) for hydrological process simulation of the Arctic River Basins. The further quality control were made for daily observation data from Global Historical Climatology Network Daily database(GHCN-D), Global Summary of the Day (GSPD),The U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN),Adjusted and homogenized Canadian climate data (AHCCD) and USSR / Russia climate data set (USSR / Russia). The thin plate spline interpolating method, which similar to the method used in PNWNAmet datasets (Werner et al., 2019), was employed to interpolate daily station data to 5min spatial resolution daily gridded forcing data using WorldClim and ClimateNA monthly climate normal data as a predictor.
ZHAO Qiudong, WU Yuwei
This dataset provides the in-situ lake water parameters of 124 closed lakes with a total lake area of 24,570 km2, occupying 53% of the total lake area of the TP.These in-situ water quality parameters include water temperature, salinity, pH,chlorophyll-a concentration, blue-green algae (BGA) concentration, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and water clarity of Secchi Depth (SD).
Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems because it links the hydrological, energy, and carbon cycles. However, accurately monitoring and understanding the spatial and temporal variability of ETa over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) remains very difficult. Here, the multiyear (2000-2018) monthly ETa on the TP was estimated using the MOD16-STM model supported by datasets of soil properties, meteorological conditions, and remote sensing. The estimated ETa correlates very well with measurements from 9 flux towers, with low root mean square errors (average RMSE = 13.48 mm/month) and mean bias (average MB = 2.85 mm/month), and strong correlation coefficients (R = 0.88) and the index of agreement values (IOA = 0.92). The spatially averaged ETa of the entire TP and the eastern TP (Lon > 90°E) increased significantly, at rates of 1.34 mm/year (p < 0.05) and 2.84 mm/year (p < 0.05) from 2000 to 2018, while no pronounced trend was detected on the western TP (Lon < 90°E). The spatial distribution of ETa and its components were heterogeneous, decreasing from the southeastern to northwestern TP. ETa showed a significantly increasing trend in the eastern TP, and a significant decreasing trend throughout the year in the southwestern TP, particularly in winter and spring. Soil evaporation (Es) accounted for more than 84% of ETa and the spatial distribution of temporal trends was similar to that of ETa over the TP. The amplitudes and rates of variations in ETa were greatest in spring and summer. The multi-year averaged annual terrestrial ETa (over an area of 2444.18×103 km2) was 376.91±13.13 mm/year, equivalent to a volume of 976.52±35.7 km3/year. The average annual evapotranspirated water volume over the whole TP (including all plateau lakes, with an area of 2539.49×103 km2) was about 1028.22±37.8 km3/year. This new estimated ETa dataset is useful for investigating the hydrological impacts of land cover change and will help with better management of watershed water resources across the TP.
MA Yaoming, CHEN Xuelong,
The dataset includs borehole core lithology, altitude survey, soil thickness and slop measurement, hydrogeological survey, and hydrogeophysical survey in the Maqu catchment of the Yellow River source region in the Tibetan Plateau. The borehole lithology data is from the 2017 drilled borehole ITC_ Maqu_ 1; altitude survey was carried out using RTK in 2019; Soil thickness and slope data were collected by auger and inclinometer in 2018 and 2019; hydrogeological survey includes groundwater table depth measurements in 2018 and 2019, and aquifer test data obtained in 2019; hydrogeological survey includes Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) , Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) , Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) , and magnetic susceptibility measurements. MRS and ERT surveys were conducted in 2018. TEM and magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out in 2019.
LI Mengna, ZENG Yijian, Maciek W. LUBCZYNSKI, BOB Su, QIAN Hui
The data set includes annual mass balance of Naimona’nyi glacier (northern branch) from 2008 to 2018, daily meteorological data at two automatic meteorological stations (AWSs) near the glacier from 2011 to 2018 and monthly air temperature and relative humidity on the glacier from 2018 to 2019. In the end of September or early October for each year , the stake heights and snow-pit features (snow layer density and stratigraphy) are manually measured to derive the annual point mass balance. Then the glacier-wide mass balance was then calculated （Please to see the reference). Two automatic weather stations (AWSs, Campbell company) were installed near the Naimona’nyi Glacier. AWS1, at 5543 m a. s.l., recorded meteorological variables from October 2011 at half hourly resolution, including air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), and downward shortwave radiation (W m-2) . AWS2 was installed at 5950 m a.s.l. in October 2010 at hourly resolution and recorded wind speed (m/s), air pressure (hPa), precipitation (mm). Data quality: the quality of the original data is better, less missing. Firstly, the abnormal data in the original records are removed, and then the daily values of these parameters are calculated. Two probes (Hobo MX2301) which record air temperature and relative humidity was installed on the glacier at half hour resolution since October 2018. The observed meteorological data was calculated as monthly values. The data is stored in Excel file. It can be used by researchers for studying the changes in climate, hydrology, glaciers, etc.
We comprehensively estimated water volume changes for 1132 lakes larger than 1 km2. Overall, the water mass stored in the lakes increased by 169.7±15.1 Gt (3.9±0.4 Gt yr-1) between 1976 and 2019, mainly in the Inner-TP (157.6±11.6 or 3.7±0.3 Gt yr-1). A substantial increase in mass occurred between 1995 and 2019 (214.9±12.7 Gt or 9.0±0.5 Gt yr-1), following a period of decrease (-45.2±8.2 Gt or -2.4±0.4 Gt yr-1) prior to 1995. A slowdown in the rate of water mass increase occurred between 2010 and 2015 (23.1±6.5 Gt or 4.6±1.3 Gt yr-1), followed again by a high value between 2015 and 2019 (65.7±6.7 Gt or 16.4±1.7 Gt yr-1). The increased lake-water mass occurred predominately in glacier-fed lakes (127.1±14.3 Gt) in contrast to non-glacier-fed lakes (42.6±4.9 Gt), and in endorheic lakes (161.9±14.0 Gt) against exorheic lakes (7.8±5.8 Gt) over 1976−2019.
Contact SupportNorthwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS 0931-4967287 email@example.com
LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center