Zoige Wetland observation point is located at Huahu wetland (102 ° 49 ′ 09 ″ E, 33 ° 55 ′ 09 ″ N) in Zoige County, Sichuan Province, with an initial altitude of 3435 m. The underlying surface is the alpine peat wetland, with well-developed vegetation, water and peat layer. This data set is the meteorological observation data of Zoige Wetland observation point from 2017 to 2019. It is obtained by using Kipp&Zonen CNR4, Vaisala HMP155A, PTB110 and other instruments. The time resolution is half an hour, mainly including wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, downward short wave radiation, downward long wave radiation.
MENG Xianhong, LI Zhaoguo
This data set is the conventional meteorological observation data of Maqu grassland observation site in the source region of the Yellow River from 2017 to 2020, obtained by using Kipp&Zonen CNR4, Vaisala HMP155A, PTB110 and other instruments, with a time resolution of half an hour. Mainly include wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, downward short-wave radiation, downward long-wave radiation, precipitation.
MENG Xianhong, LI Zhaoguo
This data set is the conventional meteorological observation data of the Ngoring Lake Grassland Observation site (GS) in the source region of the Yellow River from 2017 to 2020, obtained by using Kipp&Zonen CNR4, Vaisala HMP155A, PTB110 and other instruments, with a time resolution of half an hour. Mainly include wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity（specific humidity in 2020）, air pressure, downward short-wave radiation, downward long-wave radiation, precipitation.
MENG Xianhong, LI Zhaoguo
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is fundamental physiological variable driving the process of material and energy exchange, and is indispensable for researches in ecological and agricultural fields. In this study, we produced a 35-year (1984-2018) high-resolution (3 h, 10 km) global grided PAR dataset with an effective physical-based PAR model. The main inputs were cloud optical depth from the latest International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) H-series cloud products, the routine variables (water vapor, surface pressure and ozone) from the ERA5 reanalysis data, aerosol from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) products and albedo from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) product after 2000 and CLARRA-2 product before 2000. The grided PAR products were evaluated against surface observations measured at seven experimental stations of the SURFace RADiation budget network (SURFRAD), 42 experimental stations of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and 38 experimental stations of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN). The instantaneous PAR was validated at the SURFRAD and NEON, and the mean bias errors (MBEs) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 5.6 W m-2 and 44.3 W m-2, and 5.9 W m-2 and 45.5 W m-2, respectively, and correlation coefficients (R) are both 0.94 at 10 km scale. When averaged to 30 km, the errors were obviously reduced with RMSEs decreasing to 36.3 W m-2 and 36.3 W m-2 and R both increasing to 0.96. The daily PAR was validated at the SURFRAD, NEON and CERN, and the RMSEs were 13.2 W m-2, 13.1 W m-2 and 19.6 W m-2, respectively at 10 km scale. The RMSEs were slightly reduced to 11.2 W m-2, 11.6 W m-2, and 18.6 W m-2 when upscaled to 30 km. Comparison with the other well-known global satellite-based PAR product of the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) reveals that our PAR product was a more accurate dataset with higher resolution than the CRERS. Our grided PAR dataset would contribute to the ecological simulation and food yield assessment in the future.
1) The Qinghai Tibet plateau surface meteorological driving data set (2019-2020) includes four meteorological elements: land surface temperature, mean total precipitation rate, mean surface downward long wave radiation flux and mean surface downward short wave radiation flux. 2) The data set is based on era5 reanalysis data, supplemented by MODIS NDVI, MODIS DEM and fy3d mwri DEM data products. The era5 reanalysis data were downscaled by multiple linear regression method, and finally generated by resampling. 3) All data elements of the Qinghai Tibet plateau surface meteorological driving data set (2019-2020) are stored in TIFF format. The time resolution includes (daily, monthly and annual), and the spatial resolution is unified as 0.1 ° × 0.1°。 4) This data is convenient for researchers and students who will not use such assimilated data in. NC format. Based on the long-term observation data of field stations of the alpine network and overseas stations in the pan third pole region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third pole region are established; Complete the inversion of meteorological elements, lake water quantity and quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacier and frozen soil change and other data products through intensive observation in key areas and verification of sample plots and sample points; Based on the Internet of things technology, a multi station networked meteorological, hydrological and ecological data management platform is developed to realize real-time acquisition, remote control and sharing of networked data.
ZHU Liping, DU Baolong
Central Asia (referred to as CA) is among the most vulnerable regions to climate change due to the fragile ecosystems, frequent natural hazards, strained water resources, and accelerated glacier melting, which underscores the need of high-resolution climate projection datasets for application to vulnerability, impacts, and adaption assessments. We applied three bias-corrected global climate models (GCMs) to conduct 9-km resolution dynamical downscaling in CA. A high-resolution climate projection dataset over CA (the HCPD-CA dataset) is derived from the downscaled results, which contains four static variables and ten meteorological elements that are widely used to drive ecological and hydrological models. The static variables are terrain height (HGT, m), land use category (LU_INDEX, 21 categories), land mask (LANDMASK, 1 for land and 0 for water), and soil category (ISLTYP, 16 categories). The meteorological elements are daily precipitation (PREC, mm/day), daily mean/maximum/minimum temperature at 2m (T2MEAN/T2MAX/T2MIN, K), daily mean relative humidity at 2m (RH2MEAN, %), daily mean eastward and northward wind at 10m (U10MEAN/V10MEAN, m/s), daily mean downward shortwave/longwave flux at surface (SWD/LWD, W/m2), and daily mean surface pressure (PSFC, Pa). The reference and future periods are 1986-2005 and 2031-2050, respectively. The carbon emission scenario is RCP4.5. The results show the data product has good quality in describing the climatology of all the elements in CA, which ensures the suitability of the dataset for future research. The main feature of projected climate changes in CA in the near-term future is strong warming (annual mean temperature increasing by 1.62-2.02℃) and significant increase in downward shortwave and longwave flux at surface, with minor changes in other elements. The HCPD-CA dataset presented here serves as a scientific basis for assessing the impacts of climate change over CA on many sectors, especially on ecological and hydrological systems.
QIU Yuan QIU Yuan
As an important part of global semi-arid grassland, adequately understanding the spatio-temporal variability of evapotranspiration (ET) over the temperate semi-arid grassland of China (TSGC) could advance our understanding of climate, hydrological and ecological processes over global semi-arid areas. Based on the largest number of in-situ ET measurements (13 flux towers) within the TSGC, we applied the support vector regression method to develop a high-quality ET dataset at 1 km spatial resolution and 8-day timescale for the TSGC from 1982 to 2015. The model performed well in validation against flux tower‐measured data and comparison with water-balance derived ET.
Surface solar irradiance (SSI) is one of the products of FY-4A L2 quantitative inversion. It covers a full disk without projection, with a spatial resolution of 4km and a temporal resolution of 15min (there are 40 observation times in the whole day since 20180921, except for the observation of each hour, there is one observation every 3hr before and after the hour）, and the spectral range is 0.2µ m～5.0 µ m. The output elements of the product include total irradiance, direct irradiance on horizontal plane and scattered irradiance, the effective measurement ranges between 0-1500 w / m2. The qualitative improvement of FY-4A SSI products in coverage, spatial resolution, time continuity, output elements and other aspects makes it possible to further carry out its fine application in solar energy, agriculture, ecology, transportation and other professional meteorological services. The current research results show that the overall correlation of FY-4A SSI product in China is more than 0.75 compared with ground-based observation, which can be used for solar energy resource assessment in China.
SHEN Yanbo, HU Yueming, HU Xiuqing
Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems because it links the hydrological, energy, and carbon cycles. However, accurately monitoring and understanding the spatial and temporal variability of ETa over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) remains very difficult. Here, the multiyear (2000-2018) monthly ETa on the TP was estimated using the MOD16-STM model supported by datasets of soil properties, meteorological conditions, and remote sensing. The estimated ETa correlates very well with measurements from 9 flux towers, with low root mean square errors (average RMSE = 13.48 mm/month) and mean bias (average MB = 2.85 mm/month), and strong correlation coefficients (R = 0.88) and the index of agreement values (IOA = 0.92). The spatially averaged ETa of the entire TP and the eastern TP (Lon > 90°E) increased significantly, at rates of 1.34 mm/year (p < 0.05) and 2.84 mm/year (p < 0.05) from 2000 to 2018, while no pronounced trend was detected on the western TP (Lon < 90°E). The spatial distribution of ETa and its components were heterogeneous, decreasing from the southeastern to northwestern TP. ETa showed a significantly increasing trend in the eastern TP, and a significant decreasing trend throughout the year in the southwestern TP, particularly in winter and spring. Soil evaporation (Es) accounted for more than 84% of ETa and the spatial distribution of temporal trends was similar to that of ETa over the TP. The amplitudes and rates of variations in ETa were greatest in spring and summer. The multi-year averaged annual terrestrial ETa (over an area of 2444.18×103 km2) was 376.91±13.13 mm/year, equivalent to a volume of 976.52±35.7 km3/year. The average annual evapotranspirated water volume over the whole TP (including all plateau lakes, with an area of 2539.49×103 km2) was about 1028.22±37.8 km3/year. This new estimated ETa dataset is useful for investigating the hydrological impacts of land cover change and will help with better management of watershed water resources across the TP.
MA Yaoming, CHEN Xuelong,
This data set is a national high-resolution solar radiation data set covering 34 years (1983.7-2017.6), with a resolution of 10 km. The data unit is W / m2. The data set is developed by merging the global high-resolution (3 hours, 10 km) surface solar radiation data set (1983-2017) with isccp-hxg cloud products as the main input, with ground based sunshine duration derived surface solar raidation data from 2261 meteorological stations in China by using the geographic weighted regression method. The validation results show that this dataset can provide more accurate simulation of long-term variability of surface solar radiation than that of gewex-srb, cmsaf-clara-a2 and the isccp-hxg based surface solar radiation product. This data can provide favorable data support for the application and research of long-term change of hydrology in land surface process simulation.
FENG Fei, WANG Kaicun
This data set includes the monthly average actual evapotranspiration of the Tibet Plateau from 2001 to 2018. The data set is based on the satellite remote sensing data (MODIS) and reanalysis meteorological data (CMFD), and is calculated by the surface energy balance system model (SEBS). In the process of calculating the turbulent flux, the sub-grid scale topography drag parameterization scheme is introduced to improve the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition, the evapotranspiration of the model is verified by the observation data of six turbulence flux stations on the Tibetan Plateau, which shows high accuracy. The data set can be used to study the characteristics of land-atmosphere interaction and the water cycle in the Tibetan Plateau.
HAN Cunbo, MA Yaoming, WANG Binbin, ZHONG Lei, MA Weiqiang*, CHEN Xuelong, SU Zhongbo
Near surface atmospheric forcing data were produced by using Wether Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Heihe River Basin at hourly 0.05 * 0.05 DEG resolution, including the following variables: 2m temperature, surface pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, downward shortwave & upward longwave radiation, 10m wind field and the accumulated precipitation. The forcing data were validated by observational data collected by 15 daily Chinese Meteorological Bureau conventional automatic weather station (CMA), a few of Heihe River eco-hydrological process comprehensive remote sensing observation (WATER and HiWATER) site hourly observations were verified in different time scales, draws the following conclusion: 2m surface temperature, surface pressure and 2m relative humidity are more reliable, especially 2m surface temperature and surface pressure, the average errors are very small and the correlation coefficients are above 0.96; correlation between downward shortwave radiation and WATER site observation data is more than 0.9; The precipitation agreed well with observational data by being verified based on rain and snow precipitation two phases at yearly, monthly, daily time scales . the correlation coefficient between rainfall and the observation data at monthly and yearly time scales were up to 0.94 and 0.84; the correlation between snowfall and observation data at monthly scale reached 0.78, the spatial distribution of snowfall agreed well with the snow fractional coverage rate of MODIS remote sensing product. Verification of liquid and solid precipitation shows that WRF model can be used for downscaling analysis in complex and arid terrain of Heihe River Basin, and the simulated data can meet the requirements of watershed scale hydrological modeling and water resources balance. The data for 2000-2012 was provided in 2013. The data for 2013-2015 was updated in 2016. The data for 2016-2018 was updated in 2019. The data for 2019-2021 was updated in 2021.
The data set contains nearly 15 years of eddy covariance data from an alpine steppe ecosystem on the central Tibetan Plateau.The data was processed following standardized quality control methods to allow for comparability between the different years of our record and with other data sets. To ensure meaningful estimates of ecosystem atmosphere exchange, careful application of the following correction procedures and analyses was necessary: (1) Due to the remote location, continuous maintenance of the eddy covariance (EC) system was not always possible, so that cleaning and calibration of the sensors was performed irregularly. Furthermore, the high proportion of bare soil and high wind speeds led to accumulation of dirt in the measurement path of the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). The installation of the sensor in such a challenging environment resulted in a considerable drift in CO2 and H2O gas density measurements. If not accounted for, this concentration bias may distort the estimation of the carbon uptake. We applied a modified drift correction procedure following Fratini et al. (2014) which, instead of a linear interpolation between calibration dates, uses the CO2 concentration measurements from the Mt. Waliguan atmospheric observatory as reference time series. (2) We applied rigorous quality filtering of the calculated fluxes to retain only fluxes which represent actual physical processes. (3) During the long measurement period, there were several buildings constructed in the near vicinity of the EC system. We investigated the influence of these obstacles on the turbulent flow regime to identify fluxes with uncertain land cover contribution and exclude them from subsequent computations. (4) We calculated the de-facto standard correction for instrument surface heating during cold conditions (hereafter called sensor self heating correction) following Burba et al. (2008) and a revision of the original method following Frank and Massman (2020). (5)Subsequently, we applied the traditional and widely used gap filling procedure following Reichstein et al. (2005) to provide a more complete overview of the annual net ecosystem CO2 exchange.(6) We estimated the flux uncertainty by calculating the random flux error (RE) following Finkelstein and Sims (2001) and by using the standard deviation of the fluxes used for gap filling(NEE_fsd) as a measure for spatial and temporal variation.
Felix Nieberding, MA Yaoming, Cristian Wille, Gerardo Fratini, Magnus Ole Asmussen, Yuyang Wang*, MA Weiqiang*, Torsten Sachs
Solar global and direct radiation are measured by radiation sensors (Model TBQ-4-1, TBS-2, China), and temperature and humidity are measured by a HOBO weather station (Model H21, onset company, USA). This dataset is solar radiation and meteorological variables, including solar globla and direct radiation in the wavelength range of 270-3200nm, unit: w/m2. The units of temperature, humidity and water vapor pressure are ℃, %, hPa, respectively. The dataset of solar radiation and meteorological elements come from the measurements of data providers. Data coverage time is 2013-2016. The data set can be used to study the solar radiation and its change mechanism in a subtropical region, China.
The temporal resolution of temperature and radiation data in Central Asia is monthly scale, and the spatial resolution is 0.5 degree and 0.05 degree, respectively. The GCS_WGS_1984 projection coordinate system was used. Among them, the downward short wave radiation, air temperature and vapor pressure data of GLDAS, surface temperature / emissivity data of MOD11C3, surface albedo data of MCD43C3 and ASTER_GEDv4.1 are used for radiation data calculation; the temperature data was calculated by MOD06_ L2 cloud products and MOD07_ L2 atmospheric profile data was calculated. This data is based on the advanced remote sensing algorithm and makes full use of the current high-precision remote sensing data and products, which is different from the traditional climate model for the estimation of climate elements. The data can be used to analyze the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of water resources in Central Asia, analyze the supply-demand relationship of agricultural water resources and evaluate the development potential of water resources.
SONG Jinxi, JIANG Xiaohui
The dataset is a nearly 36-year (1983.7-2018.12) high-resolution (3 h, 10 km) global SSR (surface solar radiation) dataset, which can be used for hydrological modeling, land surface modeling and engineering application. The dataset was produced based on ISCCP-HXG cloud products, ERA5 reanalysis data, and MODIS aerosol and albedo products with an improved physical parameterization scheme. Validation and comparisons with other global satellite radiation products indicate that our SSR estimates were generally better than those of the ISCCP flux dataset (ISCCP-FD), the global energy and water cycle experiment surface radiation budget (GEWEX-SRB), and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This SSR dataset will contribute to the land-surface process simulations and the photovoltaic applications in the future. The unit is W/㎡, instantaneous value.
Based on the WRF model, using ERA5 reanalysis data as the initial and boundary fields, the high-resolution low-level atmospheric structure and the earth atmosphere exchange data set of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau are preliminarily obtained by the method of dynamic downscaling. The time range of this data set is from August 1 to August 31, 2014, with a time resolution of 1 hour, a horizontal range of 25 °N-40 °N, 70oE-105oE, and a horizontal resolution of 0.05 °. The data format is NetCDF, and one file is output every hour. The file is named after the date. The lower atmospheric structure data includes temperature, relative humidity, water vapor mixing ratio, potential height, meridional wind and latitudinal wind meteorological elements, with 34 isobaric surfaces in the vertical direction; the surface air exchange data set includes the upward / downward short wave radiation, upward / downward long wave radiation, surface sensible heat and flux, 2m air temperature and water vapor mixing ratio, 10m wind, etc. The data set can provide data support for the study of weather process and climate environment in the Tibetan Plateau.
The total solar radiation and the total radiation of absorption and scattering material attenuation are measured by the international general solar radiation meter (li200sz, li-cor, Inc., USA). The measured data are total solar radiation, including direct and diffuse solar radiation, with a wavelength range of 400-1100nm. The unit of measurement is w / m2, and the typical error is ± 3% (incidence angle is within 60 °) under natural lighting. The data of sodankyl ä station in the Arctic comes from cooperation with the site and website download. The coverage time of sodankyl ä station in the Arctic is updated to 2018.
This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at Sidaoqiao Superstation in the Heihe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 31 in 2018. There were one German BLS900 at Sidaoqiao Superstation. The north tower was set up with the BLS900 receiver and the south tower was equipped with the BLS900 transmitter. The site (north: 101.137° E, 42.008° N; south: 101.131° E, 41.987 N) was located in Ejinaqi, Inner Mongolia. The underlying surfaces between the two towers were tamarisk, populus, bare land and farmland. The elevation is 873 m. The effective height of the LAS was 25.5 m, and the path length was 2350 m. The data were sampled 1 minute. The raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods, in which sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining Cn2 with meteorological data according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The main quality control steps were as follows: (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 exceeded the saturated criterion (Cn2>7.58E-14). (2) The data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small (Average X Intensity<1000). (3) The data were rejected when collected during precipitation. (4) The data were rejected if collected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). In the iteration process, the universal functions of Thiermann and Grassl, 1992 was selected. Detailed can refer to Liu et al. (2011, 2013). Several instructions were included with the released data. (1) The missing data from the BLS900 instrument were denoted by -6999. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: Date/time (yyyy/m/d h:mm), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H_LAS, W/m^2). In this dataset, a time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30, and the data were stored in *.xlsx format. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
LIU Shaomin, LI Xin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei
As the third pole of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has a significant impact on regional and global weather and climate as a heat source in spring and summer. In order to explore the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of multi-scale thermal forcing in different time on the plateau, it is necessary to establish a set of plateau heat source (collection) data based on observation data of continuous and reliable long-term observation. Based on the meteorological elements (surface temperature, surface air temperature, wind speed at the height of 10m, daily cumulative precipitation, etc.) of the 80 (32) observation stations on the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2016 (1960-2016) of China Meteorological Bureau, the sensible heat(SH) and latent heat(LH) was calculated. Meanwhile, using satellite data processing to obtain the net radiation flux (RC) from 1984 to 2015 on the plateau, and then a set of quality controlled long-term plateau heat source data was obtained. This data set considers the diurnal variation of the overall heat transfer coefficient when calculating the surface sensible heat flux.
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