Based on the data of GF-1 and GF-2 in China, the freeze-thaw disaster distribution data of Qinghai Tibet project corridor is produced by using the deep learning classification method and manual visual interpretation and correction. The geographical range of the data is 40km along the Xidatan Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway. The data include the distribution data of thermokast lakes and the distribution data of thermal melting landslides. The dataset can provide data basis for the research of freeze-thaw disaster and engineering disaster prevention and reduction in Qinghai Tibet engineering corridor. The spatial distribution of freezing and thawing disasters within 40km along the Xidatan-Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway is self-made based on the domestic GF-2 image data. Firstly, the deep learning method is used to extract the mud flow terrace block from GF-2 data; Then, ArcGIS is used for manual editing.
NIU Fujun, LUO Jing LUO Jing
The ground-based observation dataset of aerosol optical properties over the Tibetan Plateau was obtained by continuous observation with a Cimel 318 sunphotometer, involving two stations: Qomolangma Station and Nam Co Station. These products have taken the process of cloud detection. The data cover the period from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021, and the time resolution is daily. The sunphotometer has eight observation channels from visible light to near infrared, and the central wavelengths are 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 940 and 1120 nm, respectively. The field of view angle of the instrument is 1.2°, and the sun tracking accuracy is 0.1°. Six bands of aerosol optical thickness can be obtained from direct solar radiation, and the accuracy is estimated to be 0.01-0.02. Finally, AERONET unified inversion algorithm was used to obtain the aerosol optical thickness, Ångström index, aerosol particle size distribution, single scattering albedo, phase function, complex refraction index and asymmetry factor.
CMIP6 is the sixth climate model comparison plan organized by the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). Original data from https://www.wcrp-climate.org/wgcm-cmip/wgcm-cmip6 。 This dataset contains four SSP scenarios of Scenario MIP in CMIP6. (1) SSP126: Upgrade of RCP2.6 scenario based on SSP1 (low forcing scenario) (radiation forcing will reach 2.6W/m2 in 2100). (2) SSP245: Upgrade of RCP4.5 scenario based on SSP2 (moderate forcing scenario) (radiation forcing will reach 4.5 W/m2 in 2100). (3) SSP370: New RCP7.0 emission path based on SSP3 (medium forcing scenario) (radiation forcing will reach 7.0 W/m2 in 2100). (4) SSP585: Upgrade the RCP8.5 scenario based on SSP5 (high forcing scenario) (SSP585 is the only SSP scenario that can make the radiation forcing reach 8.5 W/m2 in 2100). Using GRU data to correct the post-processing deviation of the original CMIP data, the post-processing data set of monthly precipitation (pr) and temperature (tas) estimates from 2046-2065 was obtained, with a reference period of 1985-2014.
The triple pole aerosol type data product is an aerosol type result obtained through a series of data pre-processing, quality control, statistical analysis and comparative analysis processes by comprehensively using MEERA 2 assimilation data and active satellite CALIPSO products. The key of the aerosol type fusion algorithm is to judge the aerosol type of CALIPSO. During the data fusion of aerosol type, the final aerosol type data (12 types in total) and quality control results in the three polar regions are obtained according to the types and quality control of CALIPSO aerosol types and referring to MERRA 2 aerosol types. The data product fully considers the vertical and spatial distribution of aerosols, and has a high spatial resolution (0.625 ° × 0.5 °) and time resolution (month).
The Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor runs from Golmud to Lhasa. It passes through the core region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and is an important passage connecting the interior and Tibet. The active layer thickness (ALT) is not only an important index to study the thermal state of ground in permafrost region, but also a key factor to be considered in the construction of permafrost engineering. The core of GIPL1.0 is kudryavtesv method, which takes into account the thermophysical properties of snow cover, vegetation and different soil layers. However, Yin Guoan et al. found that compared with kudryavtesv method, the accuracy of TTOP model is higher, so they improved the model in combination with freezing / thawing index. Through verification of field monitoring data, it was found that the simulation error of ALT is less than 50cm. Therefore, the ALT in the Qinghai Tibet project corridor is simulated by using the improved GIPL1.0 model, and the future ALT under the ssp2-4.5 climate change scenario is predicted.
Firstly, the freeze thaw index is calculated by using the resampled crunep data, and then the permafrost area of circum-Arctic is predicted by the frozen number model after snow depth correction. The simulated pan Arctic permafrost area from 2000 to 2015 is 19.96 × 106 km2。 Places inconsistent with the distribution of Pan Arctic permafrost provided by the existing international snow and Ice Data Center are mainly located in island permafrost areas.
We propose an algorithm for ice fissure identification and detection using u-net network, which can realize the automatic detection of ice fissures of Typical Glaciers in Greenland ice sheet. Based on the data of sentinel-1 IW from July and August every year, in order to suppress the speckle noise of SAR image, the probabilistic patch based weights (ppb) algorithm is selected for filtering, and then the representative samples are selected and input into the u-net network for model training, and the ice cracks are predicted according to the trained model. Taking two typical glaciers in Greenland (Jakobshavn and Kangerdlussuaq) as examples, the average accuracy of classification results can reach 94.5%, of which the local accuracy of fissure area can reach 78.6%, and the recall rate is 89.4%.
LI Xinwu , LIANG Shuang , YANG Bojin , ZHAO Jingjing
We propose an algorithm for ice crack identification and detection using u-net network, which can realize the automatic detection of Antarctic ice cracks. Based on the data of sentinel-1 EW from January to February every year, in order to suppress the speckle noise of SAR image, the probabilistic patch based weights (ppb) algorithm is selected for filtering, and then representative samples are selected and input into the u-net network for model training, and the ice cracks are predicted according to the trained model. Taking five typical ice shelves（Amery、Fimbul、Nickerson、Shackleton、Thwaiters) in Antarctica as an example, the average accuracy of classification results can reach 94.5%, of which the local accuracy of fissure area can reach 78.6%, and the recall rate is 89.4%.
LI Xinwu , LIANG Shuang , YANG Bojin , ZHAO Jingjing
Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) refers to the percentage of the vertical projected area of vegetation to the total area of the study area. It is an important indicator to measure the effectiveness of ecological protection and ecological restoration. It is widely used in the fields of climate, ecology, soil erosion and so on. FVC is not only an ideal parameter to reflect the productivity of vegetation, but also can play a good role in evaluating topographic differences, climate change and regional ecological environment quality. This research work is mainly to post process two sets of glass FVC data, and give a more reliable vegetation coverage of the circumpolar Arctic Circle (north of 66 ° n) and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (north of 26 ° n to 39.85 °, east longitude 73.45 ° to 104.65 °) in 2013 and 2018 through data fusion, elimination of outliers and clipping.
NDVI reflects the background effects of plant canopy, such as soil, wet ground, snow, dead leaves, roughness, etc., and is related to vegetation cover. It is one of the important parameters to reflect the crop growth and nutrient information. According to this parameter, the N demand of crops in different seasons can be known, which is an important guide to the reasonable application of N fertilizer. Correct NDVI (C-NDVI) is the value of NDVI after excluding the influence of climate elements (temperature, precipitation, etc.) on NDVI. Taking precipitation as an example, studies on the lag effect of precipitation on vegetation growth show that the lag time of precipitation effects varies in different regions due to differences in vegetation composition and soil types. In this study, we post-processed the MODIS NDVI data and firstly correlated the NDVI value of the current month with the precipitation of the current month, the average value of the precipitation of the current month with that of the previous month, and the average value of the precipitation of the current month with that of the previous two months to determine the optimal lag time. The NDVI was regressed on precipitation and air temperature to obtain the correlation coefficients, and then the corrected NDVI values were calculated by the difference between the MODIS NDVI and the NDVI regressed on climate factors. We corrected NDVI using climate data to give reliable vegetation correction indices for the circum-Arctic Circle (range north of 66°N) and the Tibetan Plateau (range 26°N to 39.85°N and 73.45°E to 104.65°E) for 2013 and 2018. The spatial resolution of the data is 0.5 degrees and the temporal resolution is monthly values.
The Qinghai Tibet Plateau is known as the "Asian water tower", and its runoff, as an important and easily accessible water resource, supports the production and life of billions of people around, and supports the diversity of ecosystems. Accurately estimating the runoff of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and revealing the variation law of runoff are conducive to water resources management and disaster risk avoidance in the plateau and its surrounding areas. The glacier runoff segmentation data set covers the five river source areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 1971 to 2015, with a time resolution of year by year, covering the five river source areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (the source of the Yellow River, the source of the Yangtze River, the source of the Lancang River, the source of the Nujiang River, and the source of the Yarlung Zangbo River), and the spatial resolution is the watershed. Based on multi-source remote sensing and measured data, it is simulated using the distributed hydrological model vic-cas coupled with the glacier module, The simulation results are verified with the measured data of the station, and all the data are subject to quality control.
Known as the "Asian water tower", the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is the source of many rivers in Southeast Asia. As an important and easily accessible water resource, the runoff provided by it supports the production and life of billions of people around it and the diversity of the ecosystem. The glacier runoff data set in the five river source areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau covers the period from 2005 to 2010, with a time resolution of every five years. It covers the source areas of the five major rivers in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (the source of the Yellow River, the source of the Yangtze River, the source of the Lancang River, the source of the Nujiang River, and the source of the Yarlung Zangbo River). The spatial resolution is 1km. Based on multi-source remote sensing, simulation, statistics, and measured data, GIS methods and ecological economics methods are used, The value of water resources service in the cryosphere in the source area of the river and river is quantified, and all its data are subject to quality control.
This product provides the monthly runoff, evapotranspiration and soil water of major Arctic river basins in 2018-2065 based on the land surface model Vic. The spatial accuracy is 10km. Major Arctic river basins include Lena, Yenisey, ob, Kolyma, Yukon and Mackenzie basins. According to the rcp2.6 (low emission intensity) and rcp8.5 (high emission intensity) scenario results provided by the ipsl-cm5a-lr model in cmip5 in the fifth assessment report of IPCC, the future climate scenario driving data applicable to the Arctic region of 0.1 ° is obtained through statistical downscaling. Using the calibrated land surface hydrological model Vic on a global scale, based on the future climate scenario driven data of 0.1 °, the monthly time series of runoff, soil water and evapotranspiration of the Arctic River Basin in the middle of this century under future climate change are estimated.
TANG Yin , TANG Qiuhong , WANG Ninglian, WU Yuwei
This dataset consists of four files including (1) Lake ice thickness of 16 large lakes measured by satellite altimeters for 1992-2019 (Altimetric LIT for 16 large lakes.xlsx); (2) Daily lake ice thickness and lake surface snow depth of 1,313 lakes with an area > 50 km2 in the Northern Hemisphere modeled by a one-dimensional remote sensing lake ice model for 2003-2018 (in NetCDF format); (3) Future lake ice thickness and surface snow depth for 2071-2099 modeled by the lake ice model with a modified ice growth module (table S1.xlsx); (4) A lookup table containing lake IDs, names, locations, and areas. This daily lake ice and snow thickness dataset could provide a benchmark for the estimation of global lake ice and snow mass, thereby improving our understanding of the ecological and economical significance of freshwater ice as well as its response to climate change.
LI Xingdong, LONG Di, HUANG Qi, ZHAO Fanyu
Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) known as Asia's water tower plays a critical role in regional water and energy cycles, largely affecting water availability for downstream countries. Rain gauges are indispensable in precipitation measurement, but are quite limited in the TP that features complex terrain and the harsh environment. Satellite and reanalysis precipitation products can provide complementary information for ground-based measurements, particularly over large poorly gauged areas. Here we optimally merged gauge, satellite, and reanalysis data by determining weights of various data sources using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and environmental variables including elevation, surface pressure, and wind speed. A Multi-Source Precipitation (MSP) data set was generated at a daily timescale and a spatial resolution of 0.1° across the TP for the 1998‒2017 period. The correlation coefficient (CC) of daily precipitation between the MSP and gauge observations was highest (0.74) and the root mean squared error was the second lowest compared with four other satellite products, indicating the quality of the MSP and the effectiveness of the data merging approach. We further evaluated the hydrological utility of different precipitation products using a distributed hydrological model for the poorly gauged headwaters of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers in the TP. The MSP achieved the best Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (over 0.8) and CC (over 0.9) for daily streamflow simulations during 2004‒2014. In addition, the MSP performed best over the ungauged western TP based on multiple collocation evaluation. The merging method could be applicable to other data-scarce regions globally to provide high quality precipitation data for hydrological research. The latitude and longitude of the left bottom corner across the TP, the number of rows and columns, and grid cells information are all included in each ASCII file.
HONG Zhongkun , LONG Di
Aiming at the 179000 km2 area of the pan three rivers parallel flow area of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, InSAR deformation observation is carried out through three kinds of SAR data: sentinel-1 lifting orbit and palsar-1 lifting orbit. According to the obtained InSAR deformation image, it is comprehensively interpreted in combination with geomorphic and optical image features. A total of 949 active landslides below 4000m above sea level were identified. It should be noted that due to the difference of observation angle, sensitivity and observation phase of different SAR data, there are some differences in the interpretation of the same landslide with different data. The scope and boundary of the landslide need to be corrected with the help of ground and optical images. The concept of landslide InSAR recognition scale is different from the traditional spatial resolution and mainly depends on the deformation intensity. Therefore, some landslides with small scale but prominent deformation characteristics and strong integrity compared with the background can also be interpreted (with SAR intensity map, topographic shadow map and optical remote sensing image as ground object reference). The minimum interpretation area can reach several pixels. For example, a highway slope landslide with only 4 pixels is interpreted with reference to the highway along the Nujiang River.
The fluctuation of a single lake level is a comprehensive reflection of water balance within the basin, while the regional consistent fluctuations of lake level can indicate the change of regional effective moisture. Previous researches were mainly focused on reconstructing effective moisture by multiproxy analyses of lake sediments, but lacked the quantitative studies on regional effective moisture variation. This dataset exhibits the Holocene effective moisture change in typical lake regions of the Tibetan Plateau and East and Central Asia, including Qinghai Lake, Chen Co, Bangong Co, etc., by constructing a virtual lake system, based on a lake energy balance model, a lake water balance model and a transient climate evolution model. The simulation results provide a new perspective for exploring the evolution of lakes on the millennial scale.
This data set is a code file set of TCA (triple collision analysis) algorithm, which is used to generate the global daily-scale soil moisture fusion dataset from 2011 to 2018.
XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, JIA Li , HU Guangcheng
This data is the land cover data at 30m resolution of Southeast Asia in 2015. The data format of the data is NetCDF, and the variable name is "land cover type". The data was obtained by mosaicing and extracting the From-GLC data. Several land cover types, such as snow and ice that do not exist in Southeast Asia were eliminated.The legend were reintegrated to match the new data. The data provide information of 8 land cover types: cropland, forest, grassland, shrub, wetland, water, city and bare land. The overall accuracy of the data is 71% (Gong et al., 2019). The data can provide the land cover information of Southeast Asia for hydrological models and regional climate models.
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is fundamental physiological variable driving the process of material and energy exchange, and is indispensable for researches in ecological and agricultural fields. In this study, we produced a 35-year (1984-2018) high-resolution (3 h, 10 km) global grided PAR dataset with an effective physical-based PAR model. The main inputs were cloud optical depth from the latest International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) H-series cloud products, the routine variables (water vapor, surface pressure and ozone) from the ERA5 reanalysis data, aerosol from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) products and albedo from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) product after 2000 and CLARRA-2 product before 2000. The grided PAR products were evaluated against surface observations measured at seven experimental stations of the SURFace RADiation budget network (SURFRAD), 42 experimental stations of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and 38 experimental stations of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN). The instantaneous PAR was validated at the SURFRAD and NEON, and the mean bias errors (MBEs) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 5.6 W m-2 and 44.3 W m-2, and 5.9 W m-2 and 45.5 W m-2, respectively, and correlation coefficients (R) are both 0.94 at 10 km scale. When averaged to 30 km, the errors were obviously reduced with RMSEs decreasing to 36.3 W m-2 and 36.3 W m-2 and R both increasing to 0.96. The daily PAR was validated at the SURFRAD, NEON and CERN, and the RMSEs were 13.2 W m-2, 13.1 W m-2 and 19.6 W m-2, respectively at 10 km scale. The RMSEs were slightly reduced to 11.2 W m-2, 11.6 W m-2, and 18.6 W m-2 when upscaled to 30 km. Comparison with the other well-known global satellite-based PAR product of the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) reveals that our PAR product was a more accurate dataset with higher resolution than the CRERS. Our grided PAR dataset would contribute to the ecological simulation and food yield assessment in the future.
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