Large-ensemble simulations of the atmosphere-only time-slice experiments for the Polar Amplification Model Intercomparison Project (PAMIP) were carried out by the model group of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (FGOALS-f3-L). Eight groups of experiments forced by different combinations of the sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentration (SIC) for pre-industrial, present-day, and future conditions were performed and published. The time-lag method was used to generate the 100 ensemble members, with each member integrating from 1 April 2000 to 30 June 2001 and the first two months as the spin-up period. All of these model datasets will contribute to PAMIP multi-model analysis and improve the understanding of polar amplification.
CAS FGOALS-f3-H, with a 0.25° horizontal resolution, and CAS FGOALS-f3-L, with a 1° horizontal resolution, were forced by the standard external conditions, and two coordinated sets of simulations were conducted for 1950–2014 and 2015–50 with the Experiment IDs of ‘highresSST-present’ and ‘highresSST-future’, respectively. The model outputs contain multiple time scales including the required hourly mean, three-hourly mean, six-hourly transient, daily mean, and monthly mean datasets.
Meteorological elements of the dataset include the near-surface land-air exchange parameters, such as downward/upward longwave/shortwave radiation flux, momentum flux, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, etc. In addition, the vertical distributions of 3-dimensional wind, temperature, humidity, and pressure from the surface to the tropopause are also included. Independent evaluations were conducted for the dataset by comparison between the observational data and the most recent ERA5 reanalysis data. The results demonstrate the accuracy and superiority of this dataset against reanalysis data, which provides great potential for future climate change research.
LI Fei, Ma Shupo, ZHU Jinhuan, ZOU Han , LI Peng , ZHOU Libo
The Tibetan Plateau Subregional Dynamical Downscaling Dataset-Standard Year (TPSDD-Standard) is a high spatial-temporal resolution gridded dataset for the study of land-air exchange processes and lower atmospheric structure over the entire Tibetan Plateau, taking into account the climatic characteristics of each subregion of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on the 500 hPa multi-year average of the geopotential height field over the Tibetan Plateau, the year (2014) with the largest pattern correlation coefficient with this geopotential height field is selected as the standard year, which means that it can roughly reflect the multi-year average status of the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau. The temporal resolution of this data is 1 hour and the spatial resolution is 5 km. Meteorological elements of the dataset include near-surface land-air exchange parameters such as downward/upward long-wave/short-wave radiation fluxes, sensible heat fluxes, latent heat fluxes, etc. In addition, the 3-dimensional vertical distribution of wind, temperature, humidity, and pressure from the surface to the top of the troposphere is also included. The dataset was independently evaluated by comparing the observed data with the latest ERA5 reanalysis data. The results demonstrate the accuracy and superiority of the dataset, which offers great potential for future climate change studies.
LI Fei, Ma Shupo, ZHU Jinhuan, ZHOU Libo , LI Peng , ZOU Han
The extraction of glacier surface movement is of great significance in the study of glacier dynamics and material balance changes. In view of the shortcomings of the current application of autonomous remote sensing satellite data in glacier movement monitoring in China, the SAR data covering typical glaciers in alpine areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2019 to 2020 obtained under the GF-3 satellite FSI mode was used to obtain the glacier surface velocity distribution in the study area with the help of a parallel offset tracking algorithm. With its good spatial resolution, GF-3 image has significant advantages in extracting glacier movement with small scale and slow movement, and can better reflect the details and differences of glacier movement. This study is helpful to analyze the movement law and spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of glaciers in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau under the background of climate change.
The Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys ice velocity product is based on the Antarctic Ice Sheet Velocity and Mapping Project (AIV) data product, which is post-processed with advanced algorithms and numerical tools. The product is mapped using Sentinel-1/2/Landsat data and provides uniform, high-resolution (60m) ice velocity results for McMurdo Dry Valleys, covering the period from 2015 to 2020.
JIANG Liming JIANG Liming JIANG Liming
This data is the simulation of Antarctic sea ice density data from 2020 to 2100 under the medium emission scenario (ssp245) of the 6th International Coupled Model Comparison Program (CMIP6). The 25 mode data of CMIP6 were uniformly interpolated and then aggregated averaged. The size of sea ice density data is 0-1, the data time range is from January 2020 to December 2100, the time resolution is month, the spatial range is south of 45 ° S, and the spatial resolution is 1 ° × 1°。 This data provides the status and evolution of Antarctic sea ice under the medium emission scenario, and can provide reference for future changes in Antarctica.
LI Shuanglin, WANG Hui
The basic data of hydrometeorology, land use and DEM were collected through the National Meteorological Information Center, the Hydrological Yearbook, the China Statistical Yearbook and the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The distributed time-varying gain hydrological model with independent intellectual property rights is used for modeling, and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is divided into 10937 sub basins with a threshold of 100 square kilometers. In Heihe River, Yarlung Zangbo River, the source of Yangtze River, the source of Yellow River, Yalong River, Minjiang River and Lancang River basins, 14 flow stations were selected to observe the daily flow data to develop and verify the model. The daily scale Naxi efficiency coefficient is above 0.7, and the correlation coefficient is above 0.8. The precipitation and temperature data output from 13 models and 4 scenarios provided by CMIP6 are used to post process the future precipitation and temperature data. The post processed precipitation and temperature driven hydrological model simulates the water cycle process from 2046 to 2065, and gives the possible future spatial and temporal distribution of 0.1 degree daily scale runoff across the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
Based on the CMIP6 model data (see Table 1 for the model list), the distribution and thickness of frozen soil in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the circum Arctic region, as well as the terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux (total primary productivity GPP and ecosystem carbon source sink NEP) data in the frozen soil area under different climate change scenarios (including SSP126, SSP245 and SSP585) in the historical period (1990-2014) and the future (2046-2065) are estimated, with a spatial resolution of 1 ° × 1°。 Among them, the distribution of frozen soil is estimated under the future climate warming scenario by using the spatial constraint method (Chadburn et al., 2017), based on the probability of frozen soil occurrence under different temperature gradients at the current stage, and combined with the future temperature change simulated by the Earth system model. For the change of active layer thickness, the sensitivity of active layer thickness to temperature change estimated by remote sensing at this stage is used to constrain the change of active layer thickness simulated by the Earth System Model, so as to correct the error of the model in simulating the thickness of frozen soil active layer. The future permafrost carbon flux is the multi model ensemble average of the Earth system model simulation results. The simulation results show that the permafrost in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau will be significantly degraded under the future climate change scenario. With the future temperature rise, the continuous permafrost regions will be shown as carbon sources, but the temperature rise will promote the growth of vegetation, and the carbon sink capacity in the discontinuous permafrost regions will be enhanced. Similar to the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the permafrost around the Arctic will also be generally degraded in the future, and the future climate warming will promote the growth of vegetation in the Arctic, thus enhancing regional carbon sinks.
WANG Tao, LIU Dan , WEI Jianjun
Based on the 33rd Antarctic Scientific Expedition in China, the data set of temporal and spatial distribution of metal element concentrations in snow and ice obtained on the section from Zhongshan Station to Dome A in East Antarctica mainly includes: 1. A shallow ice core obtained 202 km away from Zhongshan Station. The ice core covers the period from 1990 to 2017 with a resolution of years, including metal element iron, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and other data. 2. Collect a sample every 10km along the Zhongshan Station Dome A section in East Antarctica. The metal elements include rare earth elements, barium and other elements. The data can be used to study the pollution and contribution of natural sources and human activities to Antarctic snow and ice.
Based on the data of GF-1 and GF-2 in China, the freeze-thaw disaster distribution data of Qinghai Tibet project corridor is produced by using the deep learning classification method and manual visual interpretation and correction. The geographical range of the data is 40km along the Xidatan Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway. The data include the distribution data of thermokast lakes and the distribution data of thermal melting landslides. The dataset can provide data basis for the research of freeze-thaw disaster and engineering disaster prevention and reduction in Qinghai Tibet engineering corridor. The spatial distribution of freezing and thawing disasters within 40km along the Xidatan-Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway is self-made based on the domestic GF-2 image data. Firstly, the deep learning method is used to extract the mud flow terrace block from GF-2 data; Then, ArcGIS is used for manual editing.
NIU Fujun, LUO Jing LUO Jing
This data is generated based on meteorological observation data, hydrological station data, combined with various assimilation data and remote sensing data, through the preparation of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau multi-level hydrological model system WEB-DHM (distributed hydrological model based on water and energy balance) coupling snow, glacier and frozen soil physical processes. The time resolution is monthly, the spatial resolution is 5km, and the original data format is ASCII text format, Data types include grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation in the month). If the asc cannot be opened normally in arcmap, please top the first 5 lines of the asc file.
WANG Lei, CHAI Chenhao
There are 396 temperature-sensitive proxy data for the past millennium over the Northern Hemisphere, including 370 tree rings, 15 ice cores, 9 lake sediments and 2 historical documents; This data is derived from the global temperature proxy dataset released by PAGES2k Consortum in 2017; During the process of temperature assimilation in the past millennium (1000-2000 AD) in the Northern Hemisphere, the data were further screened, and only the data with annual resolution were retained; The proxy data contained in the dataset have passed strict quality inspection and temperature signal verification; The data set can be used to reconstruct the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere at the hemispherical and regional scales for the past millennium.
This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation), simulated and output through the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the Indus River basin, with temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure, etc. as input data.
WANG Lei, LIU Hu
The ground-based observation dataset of aerosol optical properties over the Tibetan Plateau was obtained by continuous observation with a Cimel 318 sunphotometer, involving two stations: Qomolangma Station and Nam Co Station. These products have taken the process of cloud detection. The data cover the period from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021, and the time resolution is daily. The sunphotometer has eight observation channels from visible light to near infrared, and the central wavelengths are 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 940 and 1120 nm, respectively. The field of view angle of the instrument is 1.2°, and the sun tracking accuracy is 0.1°. Six bands of aerosol optical thickness can be obtained from direct solar radiation, and the accuracy is estimated to be 0.01-0.02. Finally, AERONET unified inversion algorithm was used to obtain the aerosol optical thickness, Ångström index, aerosol particle size distribution, single scattering albedo, phase function, complex refraction index and asymmetry factor.
Both a decrease of sea ice and an increase of surface meltwater, which may induce ice-flow speedup and frontal collapse, have a significant impact on the stability of the floating ice shelf in Greenland. However, detailed dynamic precursors and drivers prior to a fast-calving process remain unclear due to sparse remote sensing observations. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation on hydrological and kinematic precursors before the calving event on 26 July 2017 of Petermann Glacier in northern Greenland, by jointly using remote sensing observations at high-temporal resolution and an ice-flow model. Time series of ice-flow velocity fields during July 2017 were retrieved with Sentinel-2 observations with a sub-weekly sampling interval. The ice-flow speed quickly reached 30 m/d on 26 July (the day before the calving), which is roughly 10 times quicker than the mean glacier velocity.
Glaciers are sensitive to climate change. With global warming, the melting of glaciers continues to accelerate all over the world. Surging glaciers are glaciers with intermittent and periodic acceleration, which is a sensitive indicator of climate change. Based on Landsat and Sentinel satellite images from 1980s to 2020, the study area images were obtained by filtering, stitching, and cropping. Among them, the L1GS level images collected by Landsat TM sensor were geo-registered using a second-order polynomial, and the error of the geo- registered images was less than one pixel. After image template matching with an orientation correlation algorithm, this data set provides the surface ice flow velocity of a typical surging glacier in the Greenland ice sheet, Sortebræ Glacier in different period from 1980s to 2020. It is expected to contribute to the research on the surging process of Sortebræ Glacier and the discussion on the mechanism of glacier surging in the context of global warming.
QIAO Gang , SUN Zixiang , YUAN Xiaohan
Data content: money supply (2012-2021) and assets and liabilities of financial institutions (2007-2020) Data source and processing method: The original data of the third pole (China) banks and currencies from 2015 to 2021 were obtained from the official website of the World Bank and Sina.com, and the data set of the third pole (China) banks and currencies from 2012 to 2021 was obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data started from 2012 to 2021 in Microsoft Excel (xls) format. Data quality description: excellent Data application achievements and prospects: provide effective reference as socio-economic data
Data content: price index_ Consumer Price Index (CPI) (2009-2022) Data source and processing method: The original data of the third pole (China) price index economy from 2015 to 2022 were obtained from the official website of the World Bank and Sina.com, and the economic data set of the third pole (China) price index from 2009 to 2022 was obtained through data collation, screening and cleaning. The data started from 2009 to 2022 in Microsoft Excel (xls) format. Data quality description: excellent Data application achievements and prospects: provide effective reference as socio-economic data
Data content: annual statistics of gross domestic product (GDP) (1991-2021), domestic assets and liabilities data (2011-2020) and domestic input and output data (2012-2018) Data source and processing method: The original macroeconomic data of the third pole (China) from 2015 to 2021 were obtained from the official website of the World Bank and Sina.com, and the macroeconomic data set of the third pole (China) from 1991 to 2021 was obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data was stored in Microsoft Excel (xls) format. Data quality description: excellent Data application achievements and prospects: provide effective reference as socio-economic data
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