Based on the data of GF-1 and GF-2 in China, the freeze-thaw disaster distribution data of Qinghai Tibet project corridor is produced by using the deep learning classification method and manual visual interpretation and correction. The geographical range of the data is 40km along the Xidatan Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway. The data include the distribution data of thermokast lakes and the distribution data of thermal melting landslides. The dataset can provide data basis for the research of freeze-thaw disaster and engineering disaster prevention and reduction in Qinghai Tibet engineering corridor. The spatial distribution of freezing and thawing disasters within 40km along the Xidatan-Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway is self-made based on the domestic GF-2 image data. Firstly, the deep learning method is used to extract the mud flow terrace block from GF-2 data; Then, ArcGIS is used for manual editing.
NIU Fujun, LUO Jing LUO Jing
This phenological data is based on the MOD13A2 data of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2000 to 2015 (with a temporal resolution of 16 days and a spatial resolution of 1km). The NDVI curve is fitted using the segmented Gaussian function in the TIMESAT software. The spring phenology, autumn phenology and the length of the growth season are extracted using the dynamic threshold method. The thresholds of spring phenology and autumn phenology are set to 0.2 and 0.7 respectively. The phenological data were masked. Among them, the mask rules are: 1) The maximum value of NDVI must be met between June and September; 2) The average value of NDVI from June to September shall not be less than 0.2; 3) The average NDVI in winter shall not exceed 0.3.
ZU Jiaxing , ZHANG Yangjian
The dataset is the remote sensing image data ofGF-1 satellite in the Qinghai-Tibet engineering corridor obtained by China High Resolution Earth Observation Center. After the fusion processing of multispectral and panchromatic bands, the image data with a spatial resolution of 2 m is obtained. In the process of obtaining ground vegetation information, the classification technology of combining object-oriented computer automatic interpretation and manual interpretation is adopted, The object-oriented classification technology is to collect adjacent pixels as objects to identify the spectral elements of interest, make full use of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral data space, texture and spectral information to segment and classify, and output high-precision classification results or vectors. In actual operation, the image is automatically extracted by eCognition software. The main processes are image segmentation, information extraction and accuracy evaluation. After verification with the field survey, the overall extraction accuracy is more than 90%.
Data content: this data set is the historical archived satellite data of the domestic high score series (GF1 / 2 / 3 / 4) in the key river and lake research areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2015 to 2020, which can cover the typical river and lake areas for effective monitoring. The time range of the data is from 2015 to 2020. Data source and processing method: the data are level 1 products. After equalizing radiation correction, the changes affecting the sensors are corrected by the equalizing functions of different detectors. Some data are based on the Landsat 8 images in the same period as the base map, and control points are selected for geometric correction of the images. Then, orthophoto correction is carried out based on DEM data, and band fusion processing is carried out for the corresponding data. Data quality description: the Gaofen series satellites are processed by the China Resources Satellite Application Center. There are raw data received by the satellite ground receiving station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and processed products at all levels. Among them, level 1a (pre-processing level radiometric correction image product): image data processed by data analysis, uniform radiometric correction, noise removal, MTFC, CCD splicing, band registration, etc; And provide RPC files for satellite direct attitude orbit data production. Refer to the data website of China Resources Satellite Application Center for details. Data application achievements and prospects: the data are domestic high-resolution data with high resolution, which can be used to monitor the changes of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau as a water tower in Asia and the generated images, and test the accuracy of other data in the region
The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can accurately reflect the surface vegetation coverage. At present, NDVI time series data based on spot / vegetation and MODIS satellite remote sensing images have been widely used in the research of vegetation dynamic change monitoring, land use / cover change detection, macro vegetation cover classification and net primary productivity estimation at various scales. Evi is similar to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and can be used to quantify vegetation greenness. However, evi corrects for some atmospheric conditions and canopy background noise and is more sensitive in areas with dense vegetation. It contains an "L" value to adjust the canopy background, a "C" value as the atmospheric drag coefficient, and a value from the blue band (b). These enhancements allow the ratio between R and NIR values to be calculated exponentially while reducing background noise, atmospheric noise and saturation in most cases. This research work mainly focuses on post-processing NDVI and evi data, and gives a more reliable vegetation situation of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2013 and 2018 through transformation of projection coordinate system, data fusion, maximum value synthesis method, elimination of outliers and clipping. The spatial resolution of the data is 0.05 °, and the temporal resolution is month.
Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) refers to the percentage of the vertical projected area of vegetation to the total area of the study area. It is an important indicator to measure the effectiveness of ecological protection and ecological restoration. It is widely used in the fields of climate, ecology, soil erosion and so on. FVC is not only an ideal parameter to reflect the productivity of vegetation, but also can play a good role in evaluating topographic differences, climate change and regional ecological environment quality. This research work is mainly to post process two sets of glass FVC data, and give a more reliable vegetation coverage of the circumpolar Arctic Circle (north of 66 ° n) and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (north of 26 ° n to 39.85 °, east longitude 73.45 ° to 104.65 °) in 2013 and 2018 through data fusion, elimination of outliers and clipping.
NDVI reflects the background effects of plant canopy, such as soil, wet ground, snow, dead leaves, roughness, etc., and is related to vegetation cover. It is one of the important parameters to reflect the crop growth and nutrient information. According to this parameter, the N demand of crops in different seasons can be known, which is an important guide to the reasonable application of N fertilizer. Correct NDVI (C-NDVI) is the value of NDVI after excluding the influence of climate elements (temperature, precipitation, etc.) on NDVI. Taking precipitation as an example, studies on the lag effect of precipitation on vegetation growth show that the lag time of precipitation effects varies in different regions due to differences in vegetation composition and soil types. In this study, we post-processed the MODIS NDVI data and firstly correlated the NDVI value of the current month with the precipitation of the current month, the average value of the precipitation of the current month with that of the previous month, and the average value of the precipitation of the current month with that of the previous two months to determine the optimal lag time. The NDVI was regressed on precipitation and air temperature to obtain the correlation coefficients, and then the corrected NDVI values were calculated by the difference between the MODIS NDVI and the NDVI regressed on climate factors. We corrected NDVI using climate data to give reliable vegetation correction indices for the circum-Arctic Circle (range north of 66°N) and the Tibetan Plateau (range 26°N to 39.85°N and 73.45°E to 104.65°E) for 2013 and 2018. The spatial resolution of the data is 0.5 degrees and the temporal resolution is monthly values.
Soil moisture is an important boundary condition of earth-atmosphere exchanges, and it has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. Vegetation optical depth is a physical variable to measure the attenuation of vegetation in microwave radiative transfer model, and it has been proved to be a good indicator of vegetation water content and biomass. This dataset uses the multi-channel collaborative algorithm (MCCA) to retrieve both soil moisture and polarized vegetation optical depth with SMAP brightness temperature. The algorithm uses a self-constraint relationship between land parameters and an analytical relationship between brightness temperature at different channels to perform the retrieval process. The MCCA does not depend on other auxiliary data on vegetation properties and can be applied to a variety of satellites. The soil moisture product from this dataset includes the soil moisture content in the unfrozen period and the liquid water content in the frozen period. Both horizontal- and vertical-polarization vegetation optical depth are retrieved. So far as we know, it is the first polarization-dependent vegetation optical depth product at L-band. This dataset was validated by 19 dense soil moisture observation networks (9 core validation sites used by SMAP team and 13 sites not used by them), and the widely used soil climate analysis network (SCAN). It was found that ubRMSE (unbiased root mean square error) of MCCA retrieved soil moisture is generally smaller than that of other SMAP products.
ZHAO Tianjie, PENG Zhiqing , YAO Panpan, SHI Jiancheng
This data set is daily surface albedo product over Tibet plateau region from 2002 to 2020 with a spatial resolution of 0.00425°. The MODIS reflectance data product was used to retrieve the Extended Multi-Sensor Combined BRDF Inversion (EMCBI) Model which has coupled with topographic effects with assistance of a BRDF priori-knowledge. The daily BRDF was retrieved in a 5-day period to collect multi-angular information from MODIS observations. And then the daily albedo is estimated, where the black sky albedo was calculated at local noon. MODIS surface reflectance data (MOD09GA and MYD09GA) are downloaded from the official website. The albedo product is quality-controlled with better temporal and spatial continuity in Tibet plateau area. The validation results show that it meets the accuracy requirements of albedo application with higher precisions comparing to the other similar products. And thus, this product is useful for the long-term environmental monitoring and radiation energy budget research study.
YOU Dongqin, YOU Dongqin, TANG Yong, TANG Yong, TANG Yong, HAN Yuan HAN Yuan
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is fundamental physiological variable driving the process of material and energy exchange, and is indispensable for researches in ecological and agricultural fields. In this study, we produced a 35-year (1984-2018) high-resolution (3 h, 10 km) global grided PAR dataset with an effective physical-based PAR model. The main inputs were cloud optical depth from the latest International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) H-series cloud products, the routine variables (water vapor, surface pressure and ozone) from the ERA5 reanalysis data, aerosol from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) products and albedo from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) product after 2000 and CLARRA-2 product before 2000. The grided PAR products were evaluated against surface observations measured at seven experimental stations of the SURFace RADiation budget network (SURFRAD), 42 experimental stations of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and 38 experimental stations of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN). The instantaneous PAR was validated at the SURFRAD and NEON, and the mean bias errors (MBEs) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 5.6 W m-2 and 44.3 W m-2, and 5.9 W m-2 and 45.5 W m-2, respectively, and correlation coefficients (R) are both 0.94 at 10 km scale. When averaged to 30 km, the errors were obviously reduced with RMSEs decreasing to 36.3 W m-2 and 36.3 W m-2 and R both increasing to 0.96. The daily PAR was validated at the SURFRAD, NEON and CERN, and the RMSEs were 13.2 W m-2, 13.1 W m-2 and 19.6 W m-2, respectively at 10 km scale. The RMSEs were slightly reduced to 11.2 W m-2, 11.6 W m-2, and 18.6 W m-2 when upscaled to 30 km. Comparison with the other well-known global satellite-based PAR product of the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) reveals that our PAR product was a more accurate dataset with higher resolution than the CRERS. Our grided PAR dataset would contribute to the ecological simulation and food yield assessment in the future.
Based on 11 well-acknowledged global-scale microwave remote sensing-based surface soil moisture products, and with 9 main quality impact factors of microwave-based soil moisture retrieval incorporated, we developed the Remote Sensing-based global Surface Soil Moisture dataset (RSSSM, 2003~2020) through a complicated neural network approach. The spatial resolution of RSSSM is 0.1°, while the temporal resolution is approximately 10 days. The original dataset covered 2003~2018, but now it has been updated to 2020. RSSSM dataset is outstanding in terms of temporal continuity, and has full spatial coverage except for snow, ice and water bodies. The comparison against the global-scale in-situ soil moisture measurements indicates that RSSSM has a higher spatial and temporal accuracy than most of the frequently-used global/regional long-term surface soil moisture datasets. In addition, although RSSSM is remote sensing based, without the incorporation of any precipitation data or records, its interannual variation generally conforms with that of precipitation (e.g., the GPM IMERG precipitation data) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Moreover, RSSSM can also reflect the impact of human activities, e.g., urbanization, cropland irrigation and afforestation on soil moisture changes to some degree. The data is in ‘Tiff’ format, and the size after compression is 2.48 GB. The relevant data describing paper has been published in the Journal ‘Earth System Science Data’ in 2021.
CHEN Yongzhe, FENG Xiaoming, FU Bojie
Surface soil moisture (SSM) is a crucial parameter for understanding the hydrological process of our earth surface. Passive microwave (PM) technique has long been the primary choice for estimating SSM at satellite remote sensing scales, while on the other hand, the coarse resolution (usually >~10 km) of PM observations hampers its applications at finer scales. Although quantitative studies have been proposed for downscaling satellite PM-based SSM, very few products have been available to public that meet the qualification of 1-km resolution and daily revisit cycles under all-weather conditions. In this study, therefore, we have developed one such SSM product in China with all these characteristics. The product was generated through downscaling of AMSR-E and AMSR-2 based SSM at 36-km, covering all on-orbit time of the two radiometers during 2003-2019. MODIS optical reflectance data and daily thermal infrared land surface temperature (LST) that have been gap-filled for cloudy conditions were the primary data inputs of the downscaling model, in order to achieve the “all-weather” quality for the SSM downscaling outcome. Daily images from this developed SSM product have achieved quasi-complete coverage over the country during April-September. For other months, the national coverage percentage of the developed product is also greatly improved against the original daily PM observations. We evaluated the product against in situ soil moisture measurements from over 2000 professional meteorological and soil moisture observation stations, and found the accuracy of the product is stable for all weathers from clear sky to cloudy conditions, with station averages of the unbiased RMSE ranging from 0.053 vol to 0.056 vol. Moreover, the evaluation results also show that the developed product distinctly outperforms the widely known SMAP-Sentinel (Active-Passive microwave) combined SSM product at 1-km resolution. This indicates potential important benefits that can be brought by our developed product, on improvement of futural investigations related to hydrological processes, agricultural industry, water resource and environment management.
SONG Peilin, ZHANG Yongqiang
The data set mainly includes the ice observation frequency (ICO) of north temperate lakes in four periods from 1985 to 2020, as well as the location, area and elevation of the lakes. Among them, the four time periods are 1985-1998 (P1), 1999-2006 (P2), 2007-2014 (P3) and 2015-2020 (P4) respectively, in order to improve the "valid observation" times in the calculation period and improve the accuracy. The ICO of the four periods is calculated by the ratio of "icing" times and "valid observation" times counted by all Landsat images in each period. Other lake information corresponds to the HydroLAKEs data set through the "hylak_id" column in the table. In addition, the data only retains about 30000 lakes with an area of more than 1 square kilometer, which are valid for P1-P4 observation. The data set can reflect the response of Lake icing to climate change in recent decades.
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in the study of surface energy balance. It is widely used in the fields of meteorology, climate, hydrology, agriculture and ecology. As an important means to obtain global and regional scale LST information, satellite (thermal infrared) remote sensing is vulnerable to the influence of cloud cover and other atmospheric conditions, resulting in temporal and spatial discontinuity of LST remote sensing products, which greatly limits the application of LST remote sensing products in related research fields. The preparation of this data set is based on the empirical orthogonal function interpolation method, using Terra / Aqua MODIS surface temperature products to reconstruct the lst under ideal clear sky conditions, and then using the cumulative distribution function matching method to fuse era5 land reanalysis data to obtain the lst under all-weather conditions. This method makes full use of the spatio-temporal information of the original MODIS remote sensing products and the cloud impact information in the reanalysis data, alleviates the impact of cloud cover on LST estimation, and finally reconstructs the high-quality global 0.05 ° spatio-temporal continuous ideal clear sky and all-weather LST data set. This data set not only realizes the seamless coverage of space-time, but also has good verification accuracy. The reconstructed ideal clear sky LST data in the experimental areas of 17 land cover types in the world, the average correlation coefficient (R) is 0.971, the bias (bias) is -0.001 K to 0.049 K, and the root mean square error (RMSE) is 1.436 K to 2.688 K. The verification results of the reconstructed all-weather LST data and the measured data of ground stations: the average R is 0.895, the bias is 0.025 K to 2.599 K, and the RMSE is 4.503 K to 7.299 K. The time resolution of this data set is 4 times a day, the spatial resolution is 0.05 °, the time span is 2002-2020, and the spatial range covers the world.
ZHAO Tianjie, YU Pei
This dataset contains the glacier outlines in Qilian Mountain Area in 2020. The dataset was produced based on classical band ratio criterion and manual editing. Chinese GF series images collected in 2020 were used as basic data for glacier extraction. Google images and Map World images were employed as reference data for manual adjusting. The dataset was stored in SHP format and attached with the attributions of coordinates, glacier ID and glacier area. Consisting of 1 season, the dataset has a spatial resolution of 2 meters. The accuracy is about 1 pixel (±2 meter). The dataset directly reflects the glacier distribution within the Qilian Mountain in 2020, and can be used for quantitative estimation of glacier mass balance and the quantitative assessment of glacier change’s impact on basin runoff.
Li Jia Li Jia LI Jia LI Jia
Based on AVHRR-CDR SR products, a daily cloud-free snow cover extent dataset with a spatial resolution of 5 km from 1981 to 2019 was prepared by using decision tree classification method. Each HDF4 file contains 18 data elements, including data value, data start date, longitude and latitude, etc. At the same time, to quickly preview the snow distribution, the daily file contains the snow area thumbnail, which is stored in JPG format. This data set will be continuously supplemented and improved according to the real-time satellite remote sensing data and algorithm update (up to may 2019), and will be fully open and shared.
Surface solar irradiance (SSI) is one of the products of FY-4A L2 quantitative inversion. It covers a full disk without projection, with a spatial resolution of 4km and a temporal resolution of 15min (there are 40 observation times in the whole day since 20180921, except for the observation of each hour, there is one observation every 3hr before and after the hour）, and the spectral range is 0.2µ m～5.0 µ m. The output elements of the product include total irradiance, direct irradiance on horizontal plane and scattered irradiance, the effective measurement ranges between 0-1500 w / m2. The qualitative improvement of FY-4A SSI products in coverage, spatial resolution, time continuity, output elements and other aspects makes it possible to further carry out its fine application in solar energy, agriculture, ecology, transportation and other professional meteorological services. The current research results show that the overall correlation of FY-4A SSI product in China is more than 0.75 compared with ground-based observation, which can be used for solar energy resource assessment in China.
SHEN Yanbo, HU Yueming, HU Xiuqing
The dataset is the Landsat surface reflectance products from 1980s to 2019 over the Tibetan Plateau, it is the key input parameter of many surface geophysical parameters (such as leaf area index, chlorophyll and biomass). The dataset is retrieved based on Landsat level 4 products from China satellite remote sensing ground station, and it is retrived by using the atmospheric correction based on 6S model and BRDF correction model based on C-factor .The RMSE of geometric correction is less than 12m and the RMSD of surface reflectance is less than 5%. And the corresponding production of quality identification documents (QA) is also generated to identify the cloud, ice and snow.The Landsat surface reflectance play an important role in forest, water resources, climate change.
Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the important parameters of the interface between the earth's surface and atmosphere. It is not only the direct reflection of the interaction between the surface and the atmosphere, but also has a complex feedback effect on the earth atmosphere process. Therefore, land surface temperature is not only a sensitive indicator of climate change and an important prerequisite for mastering the law of climate change, but also a direct input parameter of many models, which has been widely used in many fields, such as meteorology, climate, environmental ecology, hydrology and so on. With the deepening and refinement of Geosciences and related fields, there is an urgent need for all weather LST based on satellite remote sensing. The generation principle of this dataset is a satellite thermal infrared remote sensing reanalysis data integration method based on a new land surface temperature time decomposition model. The main input data of the method are Aqua MODIS LST products and GLDAS data, and the auxiliary data include vegetation index and surface albedo provided by satellite remote sensing. The method makes full use of the high-frequency and low-frequency components of land surface temperature and the spatial correlation of land surface temperature provided by satellite thermal infrared remote sensing and reanalysis data, and finally reconstructs a high-quality all-weather land surface temperature data set. The evaluation results show that this data set has good image quality and accuracy, which is not only seamless in space, but also highly consistent with the amplitude and spatial distribution of 1 km daily Aqua MODIS LST products widely used in current academic circles. When MODIS LST is used as reference, the mean deviation (MBE) of the data set is 0.08k to 0.16k, and the standard deviation of deviation (STD) is 1.12k to 1.46k. Compared with the daily 1km AATSR LST product released by ESA, the MBE and STD of the product are -0.21k to 0.25k and 1.27k to 1.36k during the day and night. Based on the measured data of 15 stations in Heihe River Basin, Northeast China, North China and South China, the test results show that the MBE is -0.06k to -1.17k, and the RMSE is 1.52k to 3.71k, and there is no significant difference between clear sky and non clear sky. The time resolution of this data set is twice a day, the spatial resolution is 1km, and the time span is from 2000 to 2021; The spatial scope includes the main areas of China's land (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, excluding the islands in the South China Sea) and the surrounding areas (72 ° E-135 ° E，19 ° N-55 ° N）。 This dataset is abbreviated as trims LST (thermal and reality integrating modem resolution spatial sealing LST) for users to use. It should be noted that the spatial subset of trims LST, trims lst-tp (1 km daily land surface temperature data set in Western China, trims lst-tp; 2000-2021) V2) has also been released in the national Qinghai Tibet Plateau scientific data center to reduce the workload of data download and processing for relevant users.
ZHOU Ji, ZHANG Xiaodong, TANG Wenbin, DING Lirong, MA Jin , ZHANG Xu
Agricultural irrigation consumes a large amount of available freshwater resources and is the most immediate human disturbance to the natural water cycle process, with accelerated regional water cycles accompanied by cooling effects. Therefore, estimating irrigation water use (IWU) is important for exploring the impact of human activities on the natural water cycle, quantifying water resources budget, and optimizing agricultural water management. However, the current irrigation data are mainly based on the survey statistics, which is scattered and lacks uniformity, and cannot meet the demand for estimating the spatial and temporal changes of IWU. The Global Irrigation Water Use Estimation Dataset (2011-2018) is calculated by the satellite soil moisture, precipitation, vegetation index, and meteorological data (such as incoming radiation and temperature) based on the principle of soil water balance. The framework of IWU estimation in this study coupled the remotely sensed evapotranspiration process module and the data-model fusion algorithm based on differential evolution. The IWU estimates provided from this dataset have small bias at different spatial scales (e.g., regional, state/province and national) compared to traditional discrete survey statistics, such as at Chinese provinces for 2015 (bias = −3.10 km^3), at U.S. states for 2013 (bias = −0.42 km^3), and at various FAO countries (bias = −10.84 km^3). Also, the ensemble IWU estimates show lower uncertainty compared to the results derived from individual precipitation and soil moisture satellite products. The dataset is unified using a global geographic latitude and longitude grid, with associated metadata stored in corresponding NetCDF file. The spatial resolution is about 25 km, the time resolution is monthly, and the time span is 2011-2018. This dataset will help to quantitatively assess the spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural irrigation water use during the historical period and support scientific agricultural water management.
ZHANG Kun, LI Xin, ZHENG Donghai, ZHANG Ling, ZHU Gaofeng
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