• The field observation platform of the Tibetan Plateau is the forefront of scientific observation and research on the Tibetan Plateau. The land surface processes and environmental changes based comprehensive observation of the land-boundary layer in the Tibetan Plateau provides valuable data for the study of the mechanism of the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its effects. This dataset integrates the 2005-2016 hourly atmospheric, soil hydrothermal and turbulent fluxes observations of Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS/CAS), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment, CAS (SETORS), the BJ site of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment, CAS (NPCE-BJ), Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, CAS (NAMORS), Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station, CAS (NADORS), Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station, CAS (MAWORS). It contains gradient observation data composed of multi-layer wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation data, four-component radiation data, multi-layer soil temperature and humidity and soil heat flux data, and turbulence data composed of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and carbon dioxide flux. These data can be widely used in the analysis of the characteristics of meteorological elements on the Tibetan Plaetau, the evaluation of remote sensing products and development of the remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and the evaluation and development of numerical models.

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  • This dataset contains five types of boundaries. 1. TPBoundary_ 2500m: Based on ETOPO5 Global Surface Relief, ENVI+IDL was used to extract data at an elevation of 2500m within the longitude (65~105E) and latitude (20~45N) range in the Tibetan Plateau. 2. TPBoundary_ 3000m: Based on ETOPO5 Global Surface Relief, ENVI+IDL was used to extract data at an elevation of 3000m within the longitude (65~105E) and latitude (20~45N) range in the Tibetan Plateau. 3. TPBoundary_ HF (high_frequency): This boundary is defined according to 2 previous studies. Bingyuan Li (1987) had a systematic discussion on the principles for determining the extent of the Tibetan Plateau and the specific boundaries. From the perspective of the formation and basic characteristics of the Tibetan Plateau, he proposed the basic principles for determining the extent of the Tibetan Plateau based on the geomorphological features, the plateau surface and its altitude, while considering the integrity of the mountain. Yili Zhang (2002) determined the extent and boundaries of the Tibetan Plateau based on the new results of research in related fields and years of field practice. He combined information technology methods to precisely locate and quantitatively analyze the extent and boundary location of the Tibetan Plateau, and concluded that the Tibetan Plateau in China extends from the Pamir Plateau in the west to the Hengduan Mountains in the east, from the southern edge of the Himalayas in the south to the northern side of the Kunlun-Qilian Mountains in the north. On April 14, 2017, the Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People's Republic of China issued the Announcement on Adding Geographical Names for Public Use in the Southern Tibetan Region (First Batch), adding six geographical names in the southern Tibetan region, including Wo’gyainling, Mila Ri, Qoidêngarbo Ri, Mainquka, Bümo La, and Namkapub Ri. 4. TPBoundary_ New (2021): Along with the in-depth research on the Tibetan Plateau, the improvement of multidisciplinary research and understanding inside and outside the plateau, and the progress of geographic big data and Earth observation science and technology, the development of the 2021 version of the Tibetan Plateau boundary data by Yili Zhang and et al. was completed based on the comprehensive analysis of ASTER GDEM and Google Earth remote sensing images. The range boundary starts from the northern foot of the West Kunlun Mountain-Qilian Mountain Range in the north and reaches the southern foot of the Himalayas and other mountain ranges in the south, with a maximum width of 1,560 km from north to south; from the western edge of the Hindu Kush Mountains and the Pamir Plateau in the west to the eastern edge of the Hengduan Mountains and other mountain ranges in the east, with a maximum length of about 3,360 km from east to west; the latitude and longitude range is 25°59′30″N~40°1′0″N, 67°40′37″E~104°40′57″E, with a total area of 3,083,400km2 and an average altitude of about 4,320m. Administratively, the Tibetan Plateau is distributed in nine countries, including China, India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Kyrgyzstan. 5. TPBoundary_ Rectangle: The rectangle was drawn according to the range of Lon (63~105E) and Lat (20~45N). The data are in latitude and longitude projection WGS84. As the basic data, the boundary of the Tibetan Plateau can be used as a reference basis for various geological data and scientific research on the Tibetan Plateau.

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  • This data set is based on the evaluation of existing land cover data and the evidence theory,including a 1:100,000 land use map for the year 20 2000、a 1:1,000,000 vegetation map、a 1:1,000,000 swamp-wetland map, a glacier map and a Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land cover map for China in 2001 (MODIS2001) were merged,Finally, the decision is made based on the principle of maximum trust, and a new 1KM land cover data of China in 2000 with IGBP classification system is produced. The new land cover data not only maintain the overall accuracy of China's land use data, but also supplement the information of vegetation types and vegetation seasons in China's vegetation map, update China's wetland map, add the latest information of China's glacier map, and make the classification system more general.

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  • The GAME/Tibet project conducted a short-term pre-intensive observing period (PIOP) at the Amdo station in the summer of 1997. From May to September 1998, five consecutive IOPs were scheduled, with approximately one month per IOP. More than 80 scientific workers from China, Japan and South Korea went to the Tibetan Plateau in batches and carried out arduous and fruitful work. The observation tests and plans were successfully completed. After the completion of the IOP in September, 1998, five automatic weather stations (AWS), one Portable Atmospheric Mosonet (PAM), one boundary layer tower and integrated radiation observatory (Amdo) and nine soil temperature and moisture observation stations have been continuously observed to date and have obtained extremely valuable information for 8 years and 6 months consecutively (starting from June 1997). The experimental area is located in Nagqu, in northern Tibet, and has an area of 150 km × 200 km (Fig. 1), and observation points are also established in D66, Tuotuohe and the Tanggula Mountain Pass (D105) along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway. The following observation stations (sites) are set up on different underlying surfaces including plateau meadows, plateau lakes, and desert steppe. (1) Two multidisciplinary (atmosphere and soil) observation stations, Amdo and NaquFx, have multicomponent radiation observation systems, gradient observation towers, turbulent flux direct measurement systems, soil temperature and moisture gradient observations, radiosonde, ground soil moisture observation networks and multiangle spectrometer observations used as ground truth values for satellite data, etc. (2) There are six automatic weather stations (D66, Tuotuohe, D105, D110, Nagqu and MS3608), each of which has observations of wind, temperature, humidity, pressure, radiation, surface temperature, soil temperature and moisture, precipitation, etc. (3) PAM stations (Portable Automated Meso - net) located approximately 80 km north and south of Nagqu (MS3478 and MS3637) have major projects similar to the two integrated observation stations (Amdo and NaquFx) above and to the wind, temperature and humidity turbulence observations. (4) There are nine soil temperature and moisture observation sites (D66, Tuotuohe, D110, WADD, NODA, Amdo, MS3478, MS3478 and MS3637), each of which has soil temperature measurements of 6 layers and soil moisture measurement of 9 layers. (5) A 3D Doppler Radar Station is located in the south of Nagqu, and there are seven encrypted precipitation gauges in the adjacent (within approximately 100 km) area. The radiation observation system mainly studies the plateau cloud and precipitation system and serves as a ground true value station for the TRMM satellite. The GAME-Tibet project seeks to gain insight into the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on the Asian monsoon system through enhanced observational experiments and long-term monitoring at different spatial scales. After the end of 2000, the GAME/Tibet project joined the “Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP)” jointly organized by two international plans, GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) and CL IVAR (Climate Change and Forecast). The Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau of the Global Coordinated Enhanced Observation Program (CEOP) has been started. The data set contains POP data for 1997 and IOP data for 1998. Ⅰ. The POP data of 1997 contain the following. 1. Precipitation Gauge Network (PGN) 2. Radiosonde Observation at Naqu 3. Analysis of Stable Isotope for Water Cycle Studies 4. Doppler radar observation 5. Large-Scale Hydrological Cycle in Tibet (Link to Numaguchi's home page) 6. Portable Automated Mesonet (PAM) [Japanese] 7. Ground Truth Data Collection (GTDC) for Satellite Remote Sensing 8. Tanggula AWS (D105 station in Tibet) 9. Syamboche AWS (GEN/GAME AWS in Nepal) Ⅱ. The IOP data of 1998 contain the following. 1. Anduo (1) PBL Tower, 2) Radiation, 3) Turbulence SMTMS 2. D66 (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3) GTDC (4) Precipitation 3. Toutouhe (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3 )GTDC 4. D110 (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3) GTDC (4) SMTMS 5. MS3608 (1) AWS (2) SMTMS (3) Precipitation 6. D105 (1) Precipitation (2) GTDC 7. MS3478(NPAM) (1) PAM (2) Precipitation 8. MS3637 (1) PAM (2) SMTMS (3) Precipitation 9. NODAA (1) SMTMS (2) Precipitation 10. WADD (1) SMTMS (2) Precipitation (3) Barometricmd 11. AQB (1) Precipitation 12. Dienpa (RS2) (1) Precipitation 13. Zuri (1) Precipitation (2) Barometricmd 14. Juze (1) Precipitation 15. Naqu hydrological station (1) Precipitation 16. MSofNaqu (1) Barometricmd 16. Naquradarsite (1)Radar system (2) Precipitation 17. Syangboche [Nepal] (1) AWS 18. Shiqu-anhe (1) AWS (2) GTDC 19. Seqin-Xiang (1) Barometricmd 20. NODA (1)Barometricmd (2) Precipitation (3) SMTMS 21. NaquHY (1) Barometricmd (2) Precipitation 22. NaquFx(BJ) (1) GTDC(2) PBLmd (3) Precipitation 23. MS3543 (1) Precipitation 24. MNofAmdo (1) Barometricmd 25. Mardi (1) Runoff 26. Gaize (1) AWS (2) GTDC (3) Sonde A CD of the data GAME-Tibet POP/IOP dataset cd (vol. 1) GAME-Tibet POP/IOP dataset cd (vol. 2)

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  • This dataset includes the monthly precipitation data with 0.0083333 arc degree (~1km) for China from Jan 1901 to Dec 2020. The data form belongs to NETCDF, namely .nc file. The unit of the data is 0.1 mm. The dataset was spatially downscaled from CRU TS v4.02 with WorldClim datasets based on Delta downscaling method. The dataset was evaluated by 496 national weather stations across China, and the evaluation indicated that the downscaled dataset is reliable for the investigations related to climate change across China. The dataset covers the main land area of China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions, and excluding islands and reefs in South China Sea.

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  • This data set comprises the plateau soil moisture and soil temperature observational data based on the Tibetan Plateau, and it is used to quantify the uncertainty of model products of coarse-resolution satellites, soil moisture and soil temperature. The observation data of soil temperature and moisture on the Tibetan Plateau (Tibet-Obs) are from in situ reference networks at four regional scales, which are the Nagqu network of cold and semiarid climate, the Maqu network of cold and humid climate, and the Ali network of cold and arid climate,and Pali network. These networks provided representative coverage of different climates and surface hydrometeorological conditions on the Tibetan Plateau. - Temporal resolution: 1hour - Spatial resolution: point measurement - Measurement accuracy: soil moisture, 0.00001; soil temperature, 0.1 °C; data set size: soil moisture and temperature measurements at nominal depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 - Unit: soil moisture, cm ^ 3 cm ^ -3; soil temperature, °C

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  • Snow cover dataset is produced by snow and cloud identification method based on optical instrument observation data, covering the time from 1989 to 2018 (two periods, from January to April and from October to December) and the region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (17°N-41°N, 65°E-106°E) with daily product, which takes equal latitude and longitude projection with 0.01°×0.01° spatial resolution, and characterizes whether the ground under clear sky or transparent thin cloud is covered by snow. The input data sources include AVHRR L1 data of NOAA and MetOp serials of satellites, and L1 data corresponding to AVHRR channels taken from TERRA/MODIS. Decision Tree algorithm (DT) with dynamic thresholds is employed independent of cloud mask and its cloud detection emphasizes on reserving snow, particularly under transparency cirrus. It considers a variety of methods for different situations, such as ice-cloud over the water-cloud, snow in forest and sand, thin snow or melting snow, etc. Besides those, setting dynamic threshold based on land-surface type, DEM and season variation, deleting false snow in low latitude forest covered by heavy aerosol or soot, referring to maximum monthly snowlines and minimum snow surface brightness temperature, and optimizing discrimination program, these techniques all contribute to DT. DT discriminates most snow and cloud under normal circumstances, but underestimates snow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in October. Daily product achieves about 95% average coincidence rate of snow and non-snow identification compared to ground-based snow depth observation in years. The dataset is stored in the standard HDF4 files each having two SDSs of snow cover and quality code with the dimensions of 4100-column and 2400-line. Complete attribute descriptions is written in them.

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  • The dataset is a nearly 36-year (1983.7-2018.12) high-resolution (3 h, 10 km) global SSR (surface solar radiation) dataset, which can be used for hydrological modeling, land surface modeling and engineering application. The dataset was produced based on ISCCP-HXG cloud products, ERA5 reanalysis data, and MODIS aerosol and albedo products with an improved physical parameterization scheme. Validation and comparisons with other global satellite radiation products indicate that our SSR estimates were generally better than those of the ISCCP flux dataset (ISCCP-FD), the global energy and water cycle experiment surface radiation budget (GEWEX-SRB), and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This SSR dataset will contribute to the land-surface process simulations and the photovoltaic applications in the future. The unit is W/㎡, instantaneous value.

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  • This biophysical permafrost zonation map was produced using a rule-based GIS model that integrated a new permafrost extent, climate conditions, vegetation structure, soil and topographic conditions, as well as a yedoma map. Different from the previous maps, permafrost in this map is classified into five types: climate-driven, climate-driven/ecosystem-modified, climate-driven/ecosystem protected, ecosystem-driven, and ecosystem-protected. Excluding glaciers and lakes, the areas of these five types in the Northern Hemisphere are 3.66×106 km2, 8.06×106 km2, 0.62×106 km2, 5.79×106 km2, and 1.63×106 km2, respectively. 81% of the permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere are modified, driven, or protected by ecosystems, indicating the dominant role of ecosystems in permafrost stability in the Northern Hemisphere. Permafrost driven solely by climate occupies 19% of permafrost regions, mainly in High Arctic and high mountains areas, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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  • This dataset uses daily temperature data from SMMR (1978-1987), SSM/I (1987-2009) and SSMIS (2009-2015). It is generated by the dual-index (TB, 37v, SG) freeze-thaw discrimination algorithm. The classification results include the frozen surface, the thawed surface, the deserts and water bodies. The data coverage is the main part of China’s mainland, with a spatial resolution of 25.067525 km via the EASE-Grid projection method, and it is stored in ASCIIGRID format. All the ASCII files in this data set can be opened directly with a text program such as Notepad. Except for the head file, the body content is numerically characterized by the freeze/thaw status of the surface soil: 1 for frozen, 2 for thawed, 3 for desert, and 4 for precipitation. If you want to use the icon for display, we recommend using the ArcView + 3D or Spatial Analyst extension module for reading; in the process of reading, a grid format file will be generated, and the displayed grid file is the graphical expression of the ASCII file. The read method comprises the following. [1] Add the 3D or Spatial Analyst extension module to the ArcView software and then create a new View. [2] Activate View, click File menu, and select the Import Data Source option. When the Import Data Source selection box pops up, select ASCII Raster in the Select import file type box. When the dialog box for selecting the source ASCII file automatically pops up, click to find any ASCII file in the data set, and then press OK. [3] Type the name of the Grid file in the Output Grid dialog box (it is recommended that a meaningful file name is used for later viewing) and click the path to store the Grid file, press OK again, and then press Yes (to select integer data) and Yes (to put the generated grid file into the current view). The generated files can be edited according to the Grid file standard. This completes the process of displaying an ASCII file into a Grid file. [4] In the batch processing, the ASCIGRID command of ARCINFO can be used to write AML files, and then use the Run command to complete the process in the Grid module: Usage: ASCIIGRID <in_ascii_file> <out_grid> {INT | FLOAT}. The production of this data is supported by the following Natural Science Foundation Projects: Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center of West China (90502010), Land Data Assimilation System of West China (90202014) and Active and Passive Microwave Radiation Transmission Simulation and Radiation Scattering Characteristics of the Frozen Soil (41071226).

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