Current Browsing: Hydrology

Dataset of ground truth land surface evapotranspiration at the satellite pixel scale in the Heihe River Basin (from multi-station observations to satellite pixel scale) Version 1.0

Surface evapotranspiration (ET) is an important link of water cycle and energy transmission in the earth system. The accurate acquisition of ET is helpful to the study of global climate change, crop yield estimation, drought monitoring, and has important guiding significance for regional and even global water resources planning and management. With the development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing estimation of surface evapotranspiration has become an effective way to obtain regional and global evapotranspiration. At present, a variety of low and medium resolution surface evapotranspiration products have been produced and released in business. However, there are still many uncertainties in the model mechanism, input data, parameterization scheme of remote sensing estimation of surface evapotranspiration model. Therefore, it is necessary to use the real method. The accuracy of remote sensing estimation of evapotranspiration products was quantitatively evaluated by sex test. However, in the process of authenticity test, there is a problem of spatial scale mismatch between the remote sensing estimation value of surface evapotranspiration and the site observation value, so the key is to obtain the relative truth value of satellite pixel scale surface evapotranspiration. Based on the flux observation matrix of "multi-scale observation experiment of non-uniform underlying surface evaporation" in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin from June to September 2012, the stations 4 (Village), 5 (corn), 6 (corn), 7 (corn), 8 (corn), 11 (corn), 12 (corn), 13 (corn), 14 (corn), 15 (corn), 17 (orchard) and the lower reaches of January to December 2014 Oasis Populus euphratica forest station (Populus euphratica forest), mixed forest station (Tamarix / Populus euphratica), bare land station (bare land), farmland station (melon), sidaoqiao station (Tamarix) observation data (automatic meteorological station, eddy correlator, large aperture scintillation meter, etc.) are used as auxiliary data, and the high-resolution remote sensing data (surface temperature, vegetation index, net radiation, etc.) are used as auxiliary data. See Fig. 1 for the distribution map. Considering the land Through direct test and cross test, six scale expansion methods (area weight method, scale expansion method based on Priestley Taylor formula, unequal weight surface to surface regression Kriging method, artificial neural network, random forest, depth belief network) were compared and analyzed, and finally a comprehensive method (on the underlying surface) was optimized. The area weight method is used when the underlying surface is moderately inhomogeneous; the unequal weight surface to surface regression Kriging method is used when the underlying surface is moderately inhomogeneous; the random forest method is used when the underlying surface is highly inhomogeneous) to obtain the relative true value (spatial resolution of 1km) of the surface evapotranspiration pixel scale of MODIS satellite transit instantaneous / day in the middle and lower reaches of the flux observation matrix area respectively, and to observe through the scintillation with large aperture. The results show that the overall accuracy of the data set is good. The average absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the pixel scale relative truth instantaneous and day-to-day is 2.6% and 4.5% for the midstream satellite, and 9.7% and 12.7% for the downstream satellite, respectively. It can be used to verify other remote sensing products. The evapotranspiration data of the pixel can not only solve the problem of spatial mismatch between the remote sensing estimation value and the station observation value, but also represent the uncertainty of the verification process. For all site information and scale expansion methods, please refer to Li et al. (2018) and Liu et al. (2016), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2016).


Hourly meteorological forcing & land surface state dataset of Tibet Plateau with 10 km spatial resolution (2000-2010)

The near surface atmospheric forcing and surface state dataset of the Tibetan Plateau was yielded by WRF model, time range: 2000-2010, space range: 25-40 °N, 75-105 °E, time resolution: hourly, space resolution: 10 km, grid number: 150 * 300. There are 33 variables in total, including 11 near surface atmospheric variables: temperature at 2m height on the ground, specific humidity at 2m height on the ground, surface pressure, latitudinal component of 10m wind field on the ground, longitudinal component of 10m wind field on the ground, proportion of solid precipitation, cumulative cumulus convective precipitation, cumulative grid precipitation, downward shortwave radiation flux at the surface, downward length at the surface Wave radiation flux, cumulative potential evaporation. There are 19 surface state variables: soil temperature in each layer, soil moisture in each layer, liquid water content in each layer, heat flux of snow phase change, soil bottom temperature, surface runoff, underground runoff, vegetation proportion, surface heat flux, snow water equivalent, actual snow thickness, snow density, water in the canopy, surface temperature, albedo, background albedo, lower boundary Soil temperature, upward heat flux (sensible heat flux) at the surface and upward water flux (sensible heat flux) at the surface. There are three other variables: longitude, latitude and planetary boundary layer height.


In-situ water quality parameters of the lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (2009-2020)

This dataset provides the in-situ lake water parameters of 124 closed lakes with a total lake area of 24,570 km2, occupying 53% of the total lake area of the TP.These in-situ water quality parameters include water temperature, salinity, pH,chlorophyll-a concentration, blue-green algae (BGA) concentration, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and water clarity of Secchi Depth (SD).


Great Lakes region of Central Asia basic data set hydrology (2015)

Runoff is formed by atmospheric precipitation and flows into rivers, lakes or oceans through different paths in the basin. It is also used to refer to the amount of water passing through a certain section of the river in a certain period of time, i.e. runoff. Runoff data plays an important role in the study of hydrology and water resources, which affects the social and economic development of Adam land. This data is the flow of five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan), which comes from the hydrometeorological bureaus of Central Asian countries. The time scale is the average annual data of 2015. This data provides basic data for the project, which is convenient to analyze the situation of eco hydrological water resources in Central Asia, and provides data support for project data analysis.


Data set of simulation results of key hydrological variables in Zhangye basin of Heihe River Basin (1990-2012)

This project is based on the gsflow model of USGS to simulate the surface groundwater coupling in Zhangye basin in the middle reaches of Heihe River. The space-time range and accuracy of the simulation are as follows: Simulation period: 1990-2012; Simulation step: day by day; The spatial scope of simulation: Zhangye basin; The spatial accuracy of simulation: the underground part is 1km × 1km grid (5 layers, the total number of grids in each layer is 150 × 172 = 25800, among which the active grid 9106); the surface part is based on the hydrological response unit (HRU) (588 in total, each HRU covers an area of several square kilometers to dozens of square kilometers). The data include: surface infiltration, actual evapotranspiration, average soil moisture content, surface groundwater exchange, shallow groundwater level, simulated daily flow of Zhengyi gorge, simulated monthly flow of Zhengyi gorge, groundwater extraction and river diversion


Monthly evapotranspiration dataset with 1 km spatial resolution over the Heihe River Basin Version 2.0 (2000-2013)

ET (ET) monitoring is crucial to agricultural water resource management, regional water resource utilization planning and socio-economic sustainable development.The limitations of traditional ET monitoring methods mainly lie in that they cannot observe a large area at the same time and can only be limited to observation points. Therefore, the cost of personnel and equipment is relatively high, and they can neither provide surface ET data, nor provide ET data of different land use types and crop types. Quantitative monitoring of ET can be achieved by using remote sensing. The characteristics of remote sensing information are that it can not only reflect the macroscopic structure characteristics of the earth surface, but also reflect the microscopic local differences. Version 2.0 (second edition) of the surface evapotranspiration data set of the heihe river basin from 2000 to 2013 is based on multi-source remote sensing data and the latest ETWatch model is adopted to estimate the raster image data. Its temporal resolution is monthly scale and the spatial resolution is 1km scale. The data covers the whole basin in millimeters.Data types include monthly, quarterly, and annual data. The projection information of the data is as follows: Albers equal-area cone projection, Central longitude: 110 degrees, First secant: 25 degrees, Second secant: 47 degrees, Coordinates by west: 4000000 meter. File naming rules are as follows: Monthly cumulative ET value file name: heihe-1km_2013m01_eta.tif Heihe represents the heihe river basin, 1km represents the resolution of 1km, 2013 represents the year of 2013, m01 represents the month of January, eta represents the actual evapotranspiration data, and tif represents the data in tif format. Name of quarterly cumulative ET value file: heihe-1km_2013s01_eta.tif Heihe refers to heihe river basin, 1km refers to the resolution of 1km, 2013 refers to 2013, s01 refers to january-march, is the first quarter, eta refers to the actual evapotranspiration data, and tif refers to the data in tif format. Annual cumulative value file name: heihe-1km_2013y_eta.tif Among them, heihe represents heihe river basin, 1km represents the resolution of 1km, 2013 represents the year of 2013, y represents the year, eta represents the actual evapotranspiration data, and tif represents the data in tif format.


Water Plan of California (2005)

"Hydrologic - ecological - economic process coupling and evolution of heihe river basin governance under the framework of Water rights" (91125018) project data exchange to 5-water-plan-california 1. Data overview: California's water resources plan for 2005 for catchment comparison 2. Data content: the public plan


Dataset of shrub interception and transpiration in Tianlaochi watershed of Qilian Mountain (2012)

This data includes three parts of data, namely shrub water holding experiment, shrub interception experiment and shrub transpiration experiment data. Shrub water holding experiment: select the two shrub types of Caragana jubata and Potentilla fruticosa, respectively pick the branches and leaves of the two vegetation types, weigh their fresh weight, carry out water holding experiment, measure the saturated weight of branches and leaves, dry weight of branches and leaves, dry weight of branches and leaves after completion, and finally obtain the data of branches, leaves and total water holding capacity. Shrub interception experiment: two shrubs, Caragana jubata and Potentilla fruticosa, were also selected and investigated. 30 rain-bearing cups were respectively arranged under the two shrubs. after each rainfall, penetration rainfall was measured and observed from June 1, 2012 to September 10, 2012. Shrub Transpiration Experiment: Potentilla fruticosa on July 14, Caragana jubata on August 5, Salix gilashanica on August 15, 2012. The measurement is made every hour according to the daily weather conditions.


Simulation results of eco hydrological model in the middle and lower reaches of Heihe river v1.0 (2001-2012)

This project use distributed HEIFLOW Ecological hydrology model (Hydrological - Ecological Integrated watershed - scale FLOW model) of heihe river middle and lower reaches of the eco Hydrological process simulation.The model USES the dynamic land use function, and adopts the land use data of the three phases of 2000, 2007 and 2011 provided by hu xiaoli et al. The space-time range and accuracy of simulation are as follows: Simulation period: 2000-2012, of which 2000 is the model warm-up period Analog step size: day by day Simulation space range: the middle and lower reaches of heihe river, model area 90589 square kilometers Spatial accuracy of the simulation: 1km×1km grid was used on both the surface and underground, and there were 90589 hydrological response units on the surface.Underground is divided into 5 layers, each layer 90589 mobile grid The data set of HEIFLOW model simulation results includes the following variables: (1) precipitation (unit: mm/month) (2) observed values of main outbound runoff in the upper reaches of heihe river (unit: m3 / s) (3) evapotranspiration (unit: mm/month) (4) soil infiltration amount (unit: mm/month) (5) surface yield flow (unit: mm/month) (6) shallow groundwater head (unit: m) (7) groundwater evaporation (unit: m3 / month) (8) supply of shallow groundwater (unit: m3 / month) (9) groundwater exposure (unit: m3 / month) (10) river-groundwater exchange (unit: m3 / month) (11) simulated river flow value of four hydrological stations of heihe main stream (gaoya, zhengyi gorge, senmaying, langxin mountain) (unit: cubic meter/second) The first two variables above are model-driven data, and the rest are model simulation quantities.The time range of all variables is 2001-2012, and the time scale is month.The spatial distributed data precision is 1km×1km, and the data format is tif. In the above variables, if the negative value is encountered, it represents the groundwater excretion (such as groundwater evaporation, groundwater exposure, groundwater recharge channel, etc.).If groundwater depth is required, the groundwater head data can be subtracted from the surface elevation data of the model. In some areas, the groundwater head may be higher than the surface, indicating the presence of groundwater exposure. In addition, the dataset provides: Middle and downstream model modeling scope (format:.shp) Surface elevation of the middle and downstream model (in the format of. Tif) All the above data are in the frame of WGS_1984_UTM_Zone_47N. Take heiflow_v1_et_2001m01.tif as an example to illustrate the naming rules of data files: HEIFLOW: model name V1: data set version 1.0 ET: variable name 2001M01: January 2000, where M represents month


Hydrological data of Heihe River: report set of planning and water distribution of Heihe River Basin

Data investigation method: investigation and collection of Heihe River Basin Authority. The data include: the water distribution plan of the main stream of Heihe River (including Liyuan River) prepared by the Yellow River Water Conservancy Commission of the Ministry of water resources in 1996; the brief report on the water conservancy planning of the main stream of Heihe River prepared by Lanzhou survey and Design Institute of the Ministry of water resources in 1992; the short term management plan of Heihe River Basin approved by the State Council in 2001; the compilation of historical documents of water regulation of Heihe River by the administration of Heihe River Basin in 2008 》In 2014, the research on the reasonable allocation scheme of water resources in Jiuquan Basin of the Taolai River Basin was compiled by the Taolai River Basin Authority.