The data set includes the observation data of river water level and velocity at No. 6 point in the dense observation of runoff in the middle reaches of Heihe River from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. The observation point is located in Gaoya National Hydrological Station, zhaojiatunzhuang, Ganzhou District, Zhangye City, Gansu Province. The riverbed is sandy gravel with stable section. The longitude and latitude of the observation point are n39 ° 08'06.35 ", E100 ° 25'58.23", 1420 m above sea level, and 50 m wide river channel. Hobo pressure water level gauge is used for water level observation, with acquisition frequency of 60 minutes. Data description includes the following two parts: Water level observation, 60 minutes in unit (cm) in 2014; Data covers the period of January 1, 2014 solstice December 31, 2014; Flow observation, unit (m3); According to the monitoring flow of different water levels, the flow curve of water levels was obtained, and the change process of runoff was obtained by observing the process of water levels.The missing data are uniformly represented by the string -6999. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Li et al.(2013), and for observation data processing, please refer to He et al.(2016).
Known as the "Asian water tower", the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is the source of many rivers in Southeast Asia. As an important and easily accessible water resource, the runoff provided by it supports the production and life of billions of people around it and the diversity of the ecosystem. The glacier runoff data set in the five river source areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau covers the period from 2005 to 2010, with a time resolution of every five years. It covers the source areas of the five major rivers in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (the source of the Yellow River, the source of the Yangtze River, the source of the Lancang River, the source of the Nujiang River, and the source of the Yarlung Zangbo River). The spatial resolution is 1km. Based on multi-source remote sensing, simulation, statistics, and measured data, GIS methods and ecological economics methods are used, The value of water resources service in the cryosphere in the source area of the river and river is quantified, and all its data are subject to quality control.
This product provides the monthly runoff, evapotranspiration and soil water of major Arctic river basins in 2018-2065 based on the land surface model Vic. The spatial accuracy is 10km. Major Arctic river basins include Lena, Yenisey, ob, Kolyma, Yukon and Mackenzie basins. According to the rcp2.6 (low emission intensity) and rcp8.5 (high emission intensity) scenario results provided by the ipsl-cm5a-lr model in cmip5 in the fifth assessment report of IPCC, the future climate scenario driving data applicable to the Arctic region of 0.1 ° is obtained through statistical downscaling. Using the calibrated land surface hydrological model Vic on a global scale, based on the future climate scenario driven data of 0.1 °, the monthly time series of runoff, soil water and evapotranspiration of the Arctic River Basin in the middle of this century under future climate change are estimated.
Data content: this data set is the historical archived satellite data of the domestic high score series (GF1 / 2 / 3 / 4) in the key river and lake research areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2015 to 2020, which can cover the typical river and lake areas for effective monitoring. The time range of the data is from 2015 to 2020. Data source and processing method: the data are level 1 products. After equalizing radiation correction, the changes affecting the sensors are corrected by the equalizing functions of different detectors. Some data are based on the Landsat 8 images in the same period as the base map, and control points are selected for geometric correction of the images. Then, orthophoto correction is carried out based on DEM data, and band fusion processing is carried out for the corresponding data. Data quality description: the Gaofen series satellites are processed by the China Resources Satellite Application Center. There are raw data received by the satellite ground receiving station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and processed products at all levels. Among them, level 1a (pre-processing level radiometric correction image product): image data processed by data analysis, uniform radiometric correction, noise removal, MTFC, CCD splicing, band registration, etc; And provide RPC files for satellite direct attitude orbit data production. Refer to the data website of China Resources Satellite Application Center for details. Data application achievements and prospects: the data are domestic high-resolution data with high resolution, which can be used to monitor the changes of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau as a water tower in Asia and the generated images, and test the accuracy of other data in the region
The dataset is the remote sensing image data ofGF-1 satellite in the Qinghai-Tibet engineering corridor obtained by China High Resolution Earth Observation Center. After the fusion processing of multispectral and panchromatic bands, the image data with a spatial resolution of 2 m is obtained. In the process of obtaining ground vegetation information, the classification technology of combining object-oriented computer automatic interpretation and manual interpretation is adopted, The object-oriented classification technology is to collect adjacent pixels as objects to identify the spectral elements of interest, make full use of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral data space, texture and spectral information to segment and classify, and output high-precision classification results or vectors. In actual operation, the image is automatically extracted by eCognition software. The main processes are image segmentation, information extraction and accuracy evaluation. After verification with the field survey, the overall extraction accuracy is more than 90%.
Soil freezing depth (SFD) is necessary to evaluate the balance of water resources, surface energy exchange and biogeochemical cycle change in frozen soil area. It is an important indicator of climate change in the cryosphere and is very important to seasonal frozen soil and permafrost. This data is based on Stefan equation, using the daily temperature prediction data and E-factor data of canems2 (rcp45 and rcp85), gfdl-esm2m (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85), hadgem2-es (rcp26, rcp45 and rcp85), ipsl-cm5a-lr (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85), miroc5 (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85) and noresm1-m (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85), The data set of annual average soil freezing depth in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees from 2007 to 2065 was obtained.
The Qinghai Tibet Plateau is known as the "Asian water tower", and its runoff, as an important and easily accessible water resource, supports the production and life of billions of people around, and supports the diversity of ecosystems. Accurately estimating the runoff of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and revealing the variation law of runoff are conducive to water resources management and disaster risk avoidance in the plateau and its surrounding areas. The glacier runoff segmentation data set covers the five river source areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 1971 to 2015, with a time resolution of year by year, covering the five river source areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (the source of the Yellow River, the source of the Yangtze River, the source of the Lancang River, the source of the Nujiang River, and the source of the Yarlung Zangbo River), and the spatial resolution is the watershed. Based on multi-source remote sensing and measured data, it is simulated using the distributed hydrological model vic-cas coupled with the glacier module, The simulation results are verified with the measured data of the station, and all the data are subject to quality control.
Surface evapotranspiration (ET) is an important link of water cycle and energy transmission in the earth system. The accurate acquisition of ET is helpful to the study of global climate change, crop yield estimation, drought monitoring, and has important guiding significance for regional and even global water resources planning and management. With the development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing estimation of surface evapotranspiration has become an effective way to obtain regional and global evapotranspiration. At present, a variety of low and medium resolution surface evapotranspiration products have been produced and released in business. However, there are still many uncertainties in the model mechanism, input data, parameterization scheme of remote sensing estimation of surface evapotranspiration model. Therefore, it is necessary to use the real method. The accuracy of remote sensing estimation of evapotranspiration products was quantitatively evaluated by sex test. However, in the process of authenticity test, there is a problem of spatial scale mismatch between the remote sensing estimation value of surface evapotranspiration and the site observation value, so the key is to obtain the relative truth value of satellite pixel scale surface evapotranspiration. Based on the flux observation matrix of "multi-scale observation experiment of non-uniform underlying surface evaporation" in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin from June to September 2012, the stations 4 (Village), 5 (corn), 6 (corn), 7 (corn), 8 (corn), 11 (corn), 12 (corn), 13 (corn), 14 (corn), 15 (corn), 17 (orchard) and the lower reaches of January to December 2014 Oasis Populus euphratica forest station (Populus euphratica forest), mixed forest station (Tamarix / Populus euphratica), bare land station (bare land), farmland station (melon), sidaoqiao station (Tamarix) observation data (automatic meteorological station, eddy correlator, large aperture scintillation meter, etc.) are used as auxiliary data, and the high-resolution remote sensing data (surface temperature, vegetation index, net radiation, etc.) are used as auxiliary data. See Fig. 1 for the distribution map. Considering the land Through direct test and cross test, six scale expansion methods (area weight method, scale expansion method based on Priestley Taylor formula, unequal weight surface to surface regression Kriging method, artificial neural network, random forest, depth belief network) were compared and analyzed, and finally a comprehensive method (on the underlying surface) was optimized. The area weight method is used when the underlying surface is moderately inhomogeneous; the unequal weight surface to surface regression Kriging method is used when the underlying surface is moderately inhomogeneous; the random forest method is used when the underlying surface is highly inhomogeneous) to obtain the relative true value (spatial resolution of 1km) of the surface evapotranspiration pixel scale of MODIS satellite transit instantaneous / day in the middle and lower reaches of the flux observation matrix area respectively, and to observe through the scintillation with large aperture. The results show that the overall accuracy of the data set is good. The average absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the pixel scale relative truth instantaneous and day-to-day is 2.6% and 4.5% for the midstream satellite, and 9.7% and 12.7% for the downstream satellite, respectively. It can be used to verify other remote sensing products. The evapotranspiration data of the pixel can not only solve the problem of spatial mismatch between the remote sensing estimation value and the station observation value, but also represent the uncertainty of the verification process. For all site information and scale expansion methods, please refer to Li et al. (2018) and Liu et al. (2016), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2016).
The near surface atmospheric forcing and surface state dataset of the Tibetan Plateau was yielded by WRF model, time range: 2000-2010, space range: 25-40 °N, 75-105 °E, time resolution: hourly, space resolution: 10 km, grid number: 150 * 300. There are 33 variables in total, including 11 near surface atmospheric variables: temperature at 2m height on the ground, specific humidity at 2m height on the ground, surface pressure, latitudinal component of 10m wind field on the ground, longitudinal component of 10m wind field on the ground, proportion of solid precipitation, cumulative cumulus convective precipitation, cumulative grid precipitation, downward shortwave radiation flux at the surface, downward length at the surface Wave radiation flux, cumulative potential evaporation. There are 19 surface state variables: soil temperature in each layer, soil moisture in each layer, liquid water content in each layer, heat flux of snow phase change, soil bottom temperature, surface runoff, underground runoff, vegetation proportion, surface heat flux, snow water equivalent, actual snow thickness, snow density, water in the canopy, surface temperature, albedo, background albedo, lower boundary Soil temperature, upward heat flux (sensible heat flux) at the surface and upward water flux (sensible heat flux) at the surface. There are three other variables: longitude, latitude and planetary boundary layer height.
This data provides the annual lake area of 582 lakes with an area greater than 1 km2 in the enorheic basin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1986 to 2019. First, based on JRC and SRTM DEM data, 582 lakes are identified in the area that are larger than 1 km2. All Landsat 5/7/8 remote sensing images covering a lake are used to make annual composite images. NDWI index and Ostu algorithm were used to dynamically segment lakes, and the size of each lake from 1986 to 2019 is then calculated. This study is based on the Landsat satellite remote sensing images, and using Google Earth Engine allowed us to process all Landsat images available to create the most complete annual lake area data set of more than 1 km2 in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area; A set of lake area automatic extraction algorithms were developed to calculate of the area of a lake for many years; This data is of great significance for the analysis of lake area dynamics and water balance in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region, as well as the study of the climate change of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau lake.
Contact SupportNorthwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS 0931-4967287 firstname.lastname@example.org
LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center