With the support of the first topic "sharing and integration of three pole big data" (xda19070100) of the special space-time three pole environment project of the earth big data science project, Che Tao research group of Northwest Institute of ecological environment and resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences uses machine learning methods combined with multi-source snow depth product data The daily snow depth data set of long-time Series in the northern hemisphere is prepared. Firstly, the applicability of artificial neural network, support vector machine and random forest method in snow depth fusion is compared. It is found that random forest method has strong advantages in snow depth data fusion. Secondly, using the random forest method, combined with remote sensing snow depth products such as AMSR-E, amsr2, NHsd and globsnow and reanalysis data such as era interim and merra2, the grid snow depth products and environmental factor variables are used as the input independent variables of the model, and the data of China Meteorological Station (945), Russia meteorological station (620) and Russia snow survey data (514) The snow depth data of 43340 ground observation stations such as the daily data of the global historical meteorological network (41261) are used as the reference truth to train and verify the model, and the daily grid snow depth data set of the snow hydrological year from 1980 to 2019 (September 1 of the previous year to May 31 of the current year) is prepared on the cloud platform provided by the special "earth big data science project". Using the global snow model comparison program and independent ground observation data for verification, the quality of the fusion data set has been improved as a whole. According to the comparison between the ground observation data and the snow depth products before fusion, the determination coefficient (R2) of the fusion data is increased from 0.15 (globsnow snow depth products) to 0.91, and the corresponding root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) are also reduced to 5.5 cm and 2.2 cm. The following is the header file content of each file. Adding it to the front of each file can display the data in ArcMap. Ncols 1440 / / 1440 columns in the data matrix Nrows 360 / / the data matrix has 360 rows in total Xllcenter - 180 / / the corner coordinates of the grid at the lower left corner of the matrix in the X direction Yllcenter 0 / / the corner coordinates of the grid at the lower left corner of the y-direction axis of the matrix Cellsize 0.25 / / size of each grid NODATA_ Value - 9999 / / default value
CHE Tao, HU Yanxing, DAI Liyun, XIAO Lin
Geladandong region is an important and typical source region of great rivers and lakes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. This data set provides DEM covering glaciers in the source region of the Yangtze River and Selin Co with different time scales and resolutions to calculate the seasonal and decadal changes of glacier surface elevation in the source region. This data set includes seven 5-meter resolution TanDEM-X data from July 2016 to 2017, which can be used to calculate the seasonal change of glacier surface elevation; it includes one KH-9 DEM with a resolution of 30m in 1976, five TanDEM-X with a resolution of 30m in 2011, one TanDEM-X in 2014 and three TanDEM-X in 2017 with a resolution of 30m. The data can be used to calculate the change of glacier surface elevation during 1976-2000, 2000-20112011-2017. At the same time, Landsat ETM data are used to extract the glacier outline in 1976and we divide it according to the RGI6.0; The right figure shows the spatial and temporal coverage information of the data set, and the base figure is the orthophoto corrected kh-9 image.
The surface elevation of the ice sheet is very sensitive to climate change, so the elevation change of the ice sheet is considered as an important variable to evaluate climate change. The time series of long-term ice sheet surface elevation change has become a fundamental data for understanding climate change. The longest time series of ice sheet surface elevation can be established by combining the observation records of radar satellite altimetry missions. However, the previous methods for correcting the intermission bias still have error residue when cross-calibrating different missions. Therefore，we modify the commonly used plane-fitting least-squares regression model by restricting the correction of intermission bias and the ascending–descending bias at the same time to ensure the self-consistency and coherence of surface elevation time series across different missions. Based on this method, we use Envisat and CryoSat-2 data to construct the time series of Antarctic ice sheet elevation change from 2002 to 2019. The time series is the monthly grid data, and the spatial grid resolution is 5 km×5 km. Using airborne and satellite laser altimetry data to evaluate the results, it is found that compared with the traditional method, this method can improve the accuracy of intermission bias correction by 40%. Using the merged elevation time series, combining with firn densification-modeled volume changes due to surface processes, we find that ice dynamic processes make the ice sheet along the Amundsen Sea sector the largest volume loss of the Antarctic ice sheet. The surface processes dominate the volume changes in Totten Glacier sector, Dronning Maud Land, Princess Elizabeth Land, and the Bellingshausen Sea sector. Overall, accelerated volume loss in the West Antarctic continues to outpace the gains observed in the East Antarctic. The total volume change during 2002–2019 for the AIS was −68.7 ± 8.1 km3/y, with an acceleration of −5.5 ± 0.9 km3/y2.
ZHANG Baojun, WANG Zemin, YANG Quanming, LIU Jingbin, AN Jiachun, LI Fei, GENG Hong
This biophysical permafrost zonation map was produced using a rule-based GIS model that integrated a new permafrost extent, climate conditions, vegetation structure, soil and topographic conditions, as well as a yedoma map. Different from the previous maps, permafrost in this map is classified into five types: climate-driven, climate-driven/ecosystem-modified, climate-driven/ecosystem protected, ecosystem-driven, and ecosystem-protected. Excluding glaciers and lakes, the areas of these five types in the Northern Hemisphere are 3.66×106 km2, 8.06×106 km2, 0.62×106 km2, 5.79×106 km2, and 1.63×106 km2, respectively. 81% of the permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere are modified, driven, or protected by ecosystems, indicating the dominant role of ecosystems in permafrost stability in the Northern Hemisphere. Permafrost driven solely by climate occupies 19% of permafrost regions, mainly in High Arctic and high mountains areas, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
RAN Youhua, M. Torre Jorgenson, LI Xin, JIN Huijun, WU Tonghua, Li Ren, CHENG Guodong
In recent years, the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet has accelerated, and a large amount of surface melt water has appeared on the surface of the Antarctic ice sheet. Understandings of the spatial distribution and dynamics of surface melt water on the Antarctic ice sheet is of great significance for the study of the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet. This dataset is 2000-2020 surface melt water dataset of Antarctica Ice Sheet typical melting area (Prydz bay) based on 10-30m Landsat-7, 8 and Sentinel-2 images. The projections are polar azimuthal projections in vector format (ESRI Shapefile) and raster format (GeoTIFF) and the time is Southern Hemisphere summer (December-to-February).
Snow water equivalent (SWE) is an important parameter of the surface hydrological model and climate model. The data is based on the ridge regression algorithm of machine learning, which integrates a variety of existing snow water equivalent data products to form a set of snow water equivalent data products with continuous time series and high accuracy. The spatial range of the data is Pan-Arctic (45 N° to 90 N °), The data time series is 1979-2019. The dataset is expected to provide more accurate snow water equivalent data for the hydrological and climate model, and provide data support for cryosphere change and global change.
LI Hongyi, SHAO Donghang, LI Haojie, WANG Weiguo, MA Yuan, LEI Huajin
Meteorological forcing dataset for Arctic River Basins includes five elements: daily maximum, minimum and average temperature, daily precipitation and daily average wind speed. The data is in NetCDF format with a horizontal spatial resolution of 0.083°, covering Yenisy, Lena, ob, Yukon and Mackenzie catchments. The data can be used to dirve hydrolodical model (VIC model) for hydrological process simulation of the Arctic River Basins. The further quality control were made for daily observation data from Global Historical Climatology Network Daily database(GHCN-D), Global Summary of the Day (GSPD),The U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN),Adjusted and homogenized Canadian climate data (AHCCD) and USSR / Russia climate data set (USSR / Russia). The thin plate spline interpolating method, which similar to the method used in PNWNAmet datasets (Werner et al., 2019), was employed to interpolate daily station data to 5min spatial resolution daily gridded forcing data using WorldClim and ClimateNA monthly climate normal data as a predictor.
ZHAO Qiudong, WU Yuwei
Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the important parameters of the interface between the earth's surface and atmosphere. It is not only the direct reflection of the interaction between the surface and the atmosphere, but also has a complex feedback effect on the earth atmosphere process. Therefore, land surface temperature is not only a sensitive indicator of climate change and an important prerequisite for mastering the law of climate change, but also a direct input parameter of many models, which has been widely used in many fields, such as meteorology, climate, environmental ecology, hydrology and so on. With the deepening and refinement of Geosciences and related fields, there is an urgent need for all weather LST based on satellite remote sensing. The generation principle of this dataset is a satellite thermal infrared remote sensing reanalysis data integration method based on a new land surface temperature time decomposition model. The main input data of the method are Aqua MODIS LST products and GLDAS data, and the auxiliary data include vegetation index and surface albedo provided by satellite remote sensing. The method makes full use of the high-frequency and low-frequency components of land surface temperature and the spatial correlation of land surface temperature provided by satellite thermal infrared remote sensing and reanalysis data, and finally reconstructs a high-quality all-weather land surface temperature data set. The evaluation results show that this data set has good image quality and accuracy, which is not only seamless in space, but also highly consistent with the amplitude and spatial distribution of 1 km daily Aqua MODIS LST products widely used in current academic circles. When MODIS LST is used as reference, the mean deviation (MBE) of the data set is 0.08k to 0.16k, and the standard deviation of deviation (STD) is 1.12k to 1.46k. Compared with the daily 1km AATSR LST product released by ESA, the MBE and STD of the product are -0.21k to 0.25k and 1.27k to 1.36k during the day and night. Based on the measured data of 15 stations in Heihe River Basin, Northeast China, North China and South China, the test results show that the MBE is -0.06k to -1.17k, and the RMSE is 1.52k to 3.71k, and there is no significant difference between clear sky and non clear sky. The time resolution of this data set is twice a day, the spatial resolution is 1km, and the time span is from 2000 to 2020; The spatial scope includes the main areas of China's land (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, excluding the islands in the South China Sea) and the surrounding areas (72 ° E-135 ° E，19 ° N-55 ° N）。 This dataset is abbreviated as trims LST (thermal and reality integrating modem resolution spatial sealing LST) for users to use. It should be noted that the spatial subset of trims LST, trims lst-tp (1 km daily land surface temperature data set in Western China, trims lst-tp; 2000-2020) V2) has also been released in the national Qinghai Tibet Plateau scientific data center to reduce the workload of data download and processing for relevant users.
ZHANG Xiaodong, ZHOU Ji, TANG Wenbin, DING Lirong, MA Jin, ZHANG Xu
This data includes the soil microbial composition data in permafrost of different ages in Barrow area of the Arctic. It can be used to explore the response of soil microorganisms to the thawing in permafrost of different ages. This data is generated by high through-put sequencing using the earth microbiome project primers are 515f – 806r. The region amplified is the V4 hypervariable region, and the sequencing platform is Illumina hiseq PE250; This data is used in the articles published in cryosphere, Permafrost thawing exhibits a greater influence on bacterial richness and community structure than permafrost age in Arctic permafrost soils. The Cryosphere, 2020, 14, 3907–3916, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3907-2020https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3907-2020 . This data can also be used for the comparative analysis of soil microorganisms across the three poles.
A comprehensive understanding of the permafrost changes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, including the changes of annual mean ground temperature (Magt) and active layer thickness (ALT), is of great significance to the implementation of the permafrost change project caused by climate change. Based on the CMFD reanalysis data from 2000 to 2015, meteorological observation data of China Meteorological Administration, 1 km digital elevation model, geo spatial environment prediction factors, glacier and ice lake data, drilling data and so on, this paper uses statistics and machine learning (ML) method to simulate the current changes of permafrost flux and magnetic flux in Qinghai Tibet Plateau The range data of mean ground temperature (Magt) and active layer thickness (ALT) from 2000 to 2015 and 2061 to 2080 under rcp2.6, rcp4.5 and rcp8.5 concentration scenarios were obtained, with the resolution of 0.1 * 0.1 degree. The simulation results show that the combination of statistics and ML method needs less parameters and input variables to simulate the thermal state of frozen soil, which can effectively understand the response of frozen soil on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau to climate change.
Ni Jie, WU Tonghua
This data set includes daily, annual and multi-year surface mass balance data from Antarctic ice cap poles, ice (snow) cores / snow pits, automatic weather station altimeters and ground penetrating radar observations. The data come from published literature, data reports and international data sharing platform. After quality control, the most perfect data set of daily, annual and multi-year resolution of surface mass balance of Antarctic ice sheet has been formed. Its middle-aged resolution data span the past 1000 years. The data set is mainly used in glaciology, climatology, hydrology and other disciplines, especially in the quantitative analysis of the temporal and spatial changes of Antarctic surface mass balance, climate model validation, driving ice sheet model and snow granulation model, etc.
This dataset includes the Antarctica ice sheet mass balance estimated from satellite gravimetry data, April 2002 to December 2019. The satellite measured gravity data mainly come from the joint NASA/DLR mission, Gravity Recovery And Climate Exepriment (GRACE, April 2002 to June 2017), and its successor, GRACE-FO (June 2018 till present). Considering the ~1-year data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO, we extra include gravity data estimated from GPS tracking data of ESA's Swarm 3-satellite constellation. The GRACE data used in this study are weighted mean of CSR, GFZ, JPL and OSU produced solutions. The post-processing includes: replacing GRACE degree-1, C20 and C30 spherical harmonic coefficients with SLR estimates, destriping filtering, 300-km Gaussian smoothing, GIA correction using ICE6-G_D (VM5a) model, leakage reduction using forward modeling method and ellipsoidal correction.
Yu Zhang, Shum C.K.
Data content: annual GDP statistics (1990-2019), quarterly cumulative GDP statistics (1990-2019) and GDP (2010-2019) Data sources and processing methods: the original macroeconomic data of China (including the third pole) from the official website of the world bank and sina.com from 1990 to 2019 are obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data are stored in Microsoft Excel (xlsx) format.
Data content: Central Bank gold and foreign exchange reserves (2000-2020) and money supply (2000-2017) Data sources and processing methods: the original data of banks and currencies in China (including the third pole) in 2015-2019 are obtained from the official website of the world bank and sina.com, and the bank and currency data sets of China (including the third pole) from 2000 to 2020 are obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data start time is from 2000 to 2020 in Microsoft Excel (xlsx) format.
Data content: Foreign Economic and trade_ Total import and export of goods (1952-2019) and foreign economic and trade_ Total import and export by trade (1981-2019) Data sources and processing methods: the original data of China's foreign trade and investment from 2015 to 2019 (including the third pole) were obtained from the official website of the world bank and sina.com, and the foreign trade and investment data set of China (including the third pole) from 1952 to 2019 was obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data start time is from 1952 to 2019 in Microsoft Excel (xlsx) format.
Data content: national economy_ Industrial value added (monthly) (2010-2019) Data source and processing method: the original industrial economic data of China (including the third pole) from the official website of the world bank and sina.com from 2010 to 2019 are obtained through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data start time is from 2010 to 2019 in Microsoft Excel (xlsx) format.
Data content: price index_ Consumer price index (CPI) (2010-2019) Data source and processing method: obtain the economic original data of the third pole (China region) price index from the official website of the world bank and sina.com from 2015 to 2019, and obtain the economic data set of the third pole (China region) price index from 2010 to 2019 through data sorting, screening and cleaning. The data start time is from 2010 to 2019 in Microsoft Excel (xlsx) format.
1) Data content: species list and distribution data of Phrynocephalus and Eremais in Tarim Basin, including class, order, family, genus, species, and detailed distribution information including country, province, city and county; 2) Data source and processing method: Based on the field survey of amphibians and reptiles in Tarim Basin from 2008 to 2020, and recording the species composition and distribution range of Phrynocephalus and Eremias in this area; 3) Data quality description: the investigation, collection and identification of samples are all conducted by professionals, and the collection of samples information are checked to ensure the quality of distribution data; 4) Data application results and prospects: Through comprehensive analysis of the dataset, the list of species diversity and distribution can provide important data for biodiversity cataloguing in arid central Asia, and provide scientific basis for assessing biodiversity pattern and formulating conservation strategies.
The coverage time of glacier runoff data set in the five major river source areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is from 1971 to 2015, and the time resolution is year by year, covering the source areas of five major rivers (Yellow River source, Yangtze River source, Lancang River source, Nu River source, Yarlung Zangbo River source). The data is based on multi-source remote sensing and measured data. The glacier runoff data is simulated by using the daily scale meteorological data of five major river source areas and their surrounding meteorological stations, the global vegetation products of umd-1km, the igbp-dis soil database, the first and second glacier catalogue data, and the distributed hydrological model vic-cas coupled with the glacier module is used to simulate the glacier runoff data. The simulation results are verified by the site measured data to enhance the quality control. Data indicators include: Glacier runoff (rate of glacier runoff:%), total runoff (mm / a), snow runoff (rate of snow runoff:%), and rainfall runoff rate (rainfall runoff rate:%).
The medium-resolution MODIS river and lake ice phenology data set in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere from 2002 to 2019 is based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) data of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS). Daily lake iceextent and coverage under clear-sky conditions was examined byemploying the conventional SNOWMAP algorithm, and thoseunder cloud cover conditions were re-determined using the temporal and spatial continuity of lake surface conditions througha series of steps.The lake ice phenology information obtained in this dataset was highly consistent with that from passive microwave data at an average correlation coefficient of 0.91 and an RMSE value varying from 0.07 to 0.13.
Contact SupportNorthwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS 0931-4967287 firstname.lastname@example.org
LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center