A long-term (1980-2017) land evaporation (E) product with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. This is a merged product from three model-based E products using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) method which minimizes errors. These include the fifth-generation ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA5), the second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA2), and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). To facilitate user-friendly access and download the dataset is stored individually for each year in a separate file. These files contain daily and monthly mean data (e.g., REA_1980_day.nc and REA_1980_mon.nc). The dataset is stored in NetCDF format, containing the variable E, representing land evaporation, produced in millimeters (mm) as a unit. There are three dimensions included in the dataset: longitude, latitude, and time, with the longitude ranging from -179.875E to 179.875E, the latitude from -59.875N to 89.875N. Complete time coverage is from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2017.
LU Jiao, WANG Guojie, CHEN Tiexi, LI Shijie, HAGAN Daniel, KATTEL Giri, PENG Jian, JIANG Tong, SU Buda
The SZIsnow dataset was calculated based on systematic physical fields from the Global Land Data Assimilation System version 2 (GLDAS-2) with the Noah land surface model. This SZIsnow dataset considers different physical water-energy processes, especially snow processes. The evaluation shows the dataset is capable of investigating different types of droughts across different timescales. The assessment also indicates that the dataset has an adequate performance to capture droughts across different spatial scales. The consideration of snow processes improved the capability of SZIsnow, and the improvement is evident over snow-covered areas (e.g., Arctic region) and high-altitude areas (e.g., Tibet Plateau). Moreover, the analysis also implies that SZIsnow dataset is able to well capture the large-scale drought events across the world. This drought dataset has high application potential for monitoring, assessing, and supplying information of drought, and also can serve as a valuable resource for drought studies.
WU Pute, TIAN Lei, ZHANG Baoqing
Surface soil moisture (SSM) is a crucial parameter for understanding the hydrological process of our earth surface. Passive microwave (PM) technique has long been the primary choice for estimating SSM at satellite remote sensing scales, while on the other hand, the coarse resolution (usually >~10 km) of PM observations hampers its applications at finer scales. Although quantitative studies have been proposed for downscaling satellite PM-based SSM, very few products have been available to public that meet the qualification of 1-km resolution and daily revisit cycles under all-weather conditions. In this study, therefore, we have developed one such SSM product in China with all these characteristics. The product was generated through downscaling of AMSR-E and AMSR-2 based SSM at 36-km, covering all on-orbit time of the two radiometers during 2003-2019. MODIS optical reflectance data and daily thermal infrared land surface temperature (LST) that have been gap-filled for cloudy conditions were the primary data inputs of the downscaling model, in order to achieve the “all-weather” quality for the SSM downscaling outcome. Daily images from this developed SSM product have achieved quasi-complete coverage over the country during April-September. For other months, the national coverage percentage of the developed product is also greatly improved against the original daily PM observations. We evaluated the product against in situ soil moisture measurements from over 2000 professional meteorological and soil moisture observation stations, and found the accuracy of the product is stable for all weathers from clear sky to cloudy conditions, with station averages of the unbiased RMSE ranging from 0.053 vol to 0.056 vol. Moreover, the evaluation results also show that the developed product distinctly outperforms the widely known SMAP-Sentinel (Active-Passive microwave) combined SSM product at 1-km resolution. This indicates potential important benefits that can be brought by our developed product, on improvement of futural investigations related to hydrological processes, agricultural industry, water resource and environment management.
SONG Peilin, ZHANG Yongqiang
As an important part of global semi-arid grassland, adequately understanding the spatio-temporal variability of evapotranspiration (ET) over the temperate semi-arid grassland of China (TSGC) could advance our understanding of climate, hydrological and ecological processes over global semi-arid areas. Based on the largest number of in-situ ET measurements (13 flux towers) within the TSGC, we applied the support vector regression method to develop a high-quality ET dataset at 1 km spatial resolution and 8-day timescale for the TSGC from 1982 to 2015. The model performed well in validation against flux tower‐measured data and comparison with water-balance derived ET.
The Tibet-Obs established in 2008 consists of three regional-scale soil moisture (SM) monitoring networks, i.e. the Maqu, Naqu, and Ngari (including Ali and Shiquanhe) networks. This surface SM dataset includes the original 15-min in situ measurements collected at a depth of 5 cm by multiple SM monitoring sites of all the networks, and the spatially upscaled SM records produced for the Maqu and Shiquanhe networks.
ZHANG Pei, ZHENG Donghai, WEN Jun, ZENG Yijian, WANG Xin, WANG Zuoliang, MA Yaoming, SU Zhongbo
Meteorological forcing dataset for Arctic River Basins includes five elements: daily maximum, minimum and average temperature, daily precipitation and daily average wind speed. The data is in NetCDF format with a horizontal spatial resolution of 0.083°, covering Yenisy, Lena, ob, Yukon and Mackenzie catchments. The data can be used to dirve hydrolodical model (VIC model) for hydrological process simulation of the Arctic River Basins. The further quality control were made for daily observation data from Global Historical Climatology Network Daily database(GHCN-D), Global Summary of the Day (GSPD),The U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN),Adjusted and homogenized Canadian climate data (AHCCD) and USSR / Russia climate data set (USSR / Russia). The thin plate spline interpolating method, which similar to the method used in PNWNAmet datasets (Werner et al., 2019), was employed to interpolate daily station data to 5min spatial resolution daily gridded forcing data using WorldClim and ClimateNA monthly climate normal data as a predictor.
ZHAO Qiudong, WU Yuwei
This dataset provides the in-situ lake water parameters of 124 closed lakes with a total lake area of 24,570 km2, occupying 53% of the total lake area of the TP.These in-situ water quality parameters include water temperature, salinity, pH,chlorophyll-a concentration, blue-green algae (BGA) concentration, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and water clarity of Secchi Depth (SD).
Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems because it links the hydrological, energy, and carbon cycles. However, accurately monitoring and understanding the spatial and temporal variability of ETa over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) remains very difficult. Here, the multiyear (2000-2018) monthly ETa on the TP was estimated using the MOD16-STM model supported by datasets of soil properties, meteorological conditions, and remote sensing. The estimated ETa correlates very well with measurements from 9 flux towers, with low root mean square errors (average RMSE = 13.48 mm/month) and mean bias (average MB = 2.85 mm/month), and strong correlation coefficients (R = 0.88) and the index of agreement values (IOA = 0.92). The spatially averaged ETa of the entire TP and the eastern TP (Lon > 90°E) increased significantly, at rates of 1.34 mm/year (p < 0.05) and 2.84 mm/year (p < 0.05) from 2000 to 2018, while no pronounced trend was detected on the western TP (Lon < 90°E). The spatial distribution of ETa and its components were heterogeneous, decreasing from the southeastern to northwestern TP. ETa showed a significantly increasing trend in the eastern TP, and a significant decreasing trend throughout the year in the southwestern TP, particularly in winter and spring. Soil evaporation (Es) accounted for more than 84% of ETa and the spatial distribution of temporal trends was similar to that of ETa over the TP. The amplitudes and rates of variations in ETa were greatest in spring and summer. The multi-year averaged annual terrestrial ETa (over an area of 2444.18×103 km2) was 376.91±13.13 mm/year, equivalent to a volume of 976.52±35.7 km3/year. The average annual evapotranspirated water volume over the whole TP (including all plateau lakes, with an area of 2539.49×103 km2) was about 1028.22±37.8 km3/year. This new estimated ETa dataset is useful for investigating the hydrological impacts of land cover change and will help with better management of watershed water resources across the TP.
MA Yaoming, CHEN Xuelong,
The dataset includs borehole core lithology, altitude survey, soil thickness and slop measurement, hydrogeological survey, and hydrogeophysical survey in the Maqu catchment of the Yellow River source region in the Tibetan Plateau. The borehole lithology data is from the 2017 drilled borehole ITC_ Maqu_ 1; altitude survey was carried out using RTK in 2019; Soil thickness and slope data were collected by auger and inclinometer in 2018 and 2019; hydrogeological survey includes groundwater table depth measurements in 2018 and 2019, and aquifer test data obtained in 2019; hydrogeological survey includes Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) , Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) , Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) , and magnetic susceptibility measurements. MRS and ERT surveys were conducted in 2018. TEM and magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out in 2019.
LI Mengna, ZENG Yijian, Maciek W. LUBCZYNSKI, BOB Su, QIAN Hui
The data set includes annual mass balance of Naimona’nyi glacier (northern branch) from 2008 to 2018, daily meteorological data at two automatic meteorological stations (AWSs) near the glacier from 2011 to 2018 and monthly air temperature and relative humidity on the glacier from 2018 to 2019. In the end of September or early October for each year , the stake heights and snow-pit features (snow layer density and stratigraphy) are manually measured to derive the annual point mass balance. Then the glacier-wide mass balance was then calculated （Please to see the reference). Two automatic weather stations (AWSs, Campbell company) were installed near the Naimona’nyi Glacier. AWS1, at 5543 m a. s.l., recorded meteorological variables from October 2011 at half hourly resolution, including air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), and downward shortwave radiation (W m-2) . AWS2 was installed at 5950 m a.s.l. in October 2010 at hourly resolution and recorded wind speed (m/s), air pressure (hPa), precipitation (mm). Data quality: the quality of the original data is better, less missing. Firstly, the abnormal data in the original records are removed, and then the daily values of these parameters are calculated. Two probes (Hobo MX2301) which record air temperature and relative humidity was installed on the glacier at half hour resolution since October 2018. The observed meteorological data was calculated as monthly values. The data is stored in Excel file. It can be used by researchers for studying the changes in climate, hydrology, glaciers, etc.
We comprehensively estimated water volume changes for 1132 lakes larger than 1 km2. Overall, the water mass stored in the lakes increased by 169.7±15.1 Gt (3.9±0.4 Gt yr-1) between 1976 and 2019, mainly in the Inner-TP (157.6±11.6 or 3.7±0.3 Gt yr-1). A substantial increase in mass occurred between 1995 and 2019 (214.9±12.7 Gt or 9.0±0.5 Gt yr-1), following a period of decrease (-45.2±8.2 Gt or -2.4±0.4 Gt yr-1) prior to 1995. A slowdown in the rate of water mass increase occurred between 2010 and 2015 (23.1±6.5 Gt or 4.6±1.3 Gt yr-1), followed again by a high value between 2015 and 2019 (65.7±6.7 Gt or 16.4±1.7 Gt yr-1). The increased lake-water mass occurred predominately in glacier-fed lakes (127.1±14.3 Gt) in contrast to non-glacier-fed lakes (42.6±4.9 Gt), and in endorheic lakes (161.9±14.0 Gt) against exorheic lakes (7.8±5.8 Gt) over 1976−2019.
The long-time series data set of extreme precipitation index in the arid region of Central Asia contains 10 extreme precipitation index long-time series data of 49 stations. Based on the daily precipitation data of the global daily climate historical data network (ghcn-d), the data quality control and outlier elimination were used to select the stations that meet the extreme precipitation index calculation. Ten extreme precipitation indexes (prcptot, SDII, rx1day, rx5day, r95ptot, r99ptot, R10, R20) defined by the joint expert group on climate change detection and index (etccdi) were calculated 、CWD、CDD）。 Among them, there are 15 time series from 1925 to 2005. This data set can be used to detect and analyze the frequency and trend of extreme precipitation events in the arid region of Central Asia under global climate change, and can also be used as basic data to explore the impact of extreme precipitation events on agricultural production and life and property losses.
YAO Junqiang, CHEN Jing, LI Jiangang
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable for high temperature and drought monitoring and climate and ecological environment research. Due to the sparse distribution of ground observation stations, thermal infrared remote sensing technology has become an important means of quickly obtaining ground temperature over large areas. However, there are many missing and low-quality values in satellite-based LST data because clouds cover more than 60% of the global surface every day. This article presents a unique LST dataset with a monthly temporal resolution for China from 2003 to 2017 that makes full use of the advantages of MODIS data and meteorological station data to overcome the defects of cloud influence via a reconstruction model. We specifically describe the reconstruction model, which uses a combination of MODIS daily data, monthly data and meteorological station data to reconstruct the LST in areas with cloud coverage and for grid cells with elevated LST error, and the data performance is then further improved by establishing a regression analysis model. The validation indicates that the new LST dataset is highly consistent with in situ observations. For the six natural subregions with different climatic conditions in China, verification using ground observation data shows that the root mean square error (RMSE) ranges from 1.24 to 1.58 K, the mean absolute error (MAE) varies from 1.23 to 1.37 K and the Pearson coefficient (R2) ranges from 0.93 to 0.99. The new dataset adequately captures the spatiotemporal variations in LST at annual, seasonal and monthly scales. From 2003 to 2017, the overall annual mean LST in China showed a weak increase. Moreover, the positive trend was remarkably unevenly distributed across China. The most significant warming occurred in the central and western areas of the Inner Mongolia Plateau in the Northwest Region, and the average annual temperature change is greater than 0.1K (R>0:71, P<0:05), and a strong negative trend was observed in some parts of the Northeast Region and South China Region. Seasonally, there was significant warming in western China in winter, which was most pronounced in December. The reconstructed dataset exhibits significant improvements and can be used for the spatiotemporal evaluation of LST in high-temperature and drought-monitoring studies. More detail please refer to Zhao et al (2020). doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3528024
The Land Surface Temperature in China dataset contains land surface temperature data for China (about 9.6 million square kilometers of land) during the period of 2003-2017, in Celsius, in monthly temporal and 5600 m spatial resolution. It is produced by combing MODIS daily data(MOD11C1 and MYD11C1), monthly data(MOD11C3 and MYD11C3) and meteorological station data to reconstruct real LST under cloud coverage in monthly LST images, and then a regression analysis model is constructed to further improve accuracy in six natural subregions with different climatic conditions.
This dataset contains measurements of L-band brightness temperature by an ELBARA-III microwave radiometer in horizontal and vertical polarization, profile soil moisture and soil temperature, turbulent heat fluxes, and meteorological data from the beginning of 2016 till August 2019, while the experiment is still continuing. Auxiliary vegetation and soil texture information collected in dedicated campaigns are also reported. This dataset can be used to validate the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite based observations and retrievals, verify radiative transfer model assumptions and validate land surface model and reanalysis outputs, retrieve soil properties, as well as to quantify land-atmosphere exchanges of energy, water and carbon and help to reduce discrepancies and uncertainties in current Earth System Models (ESM) parameterizations. ELBARA-III horizontal and vertical brightness temperature are computed from measured radiometer voltages and calibrated internal noise temperatures. The data is reliable, and its quality is evaluated by 1) Perform ‘histogram test’ on the voltage samples (raw-data) of the detector output at sampling frequency of 800 Hz. Statistics of the histogram test showed no non-Gaussian Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) were found when ELBAR-III was operated. 2) Check the voltages at the antenna ports measured during sky measurements. Results showed close values. 3) Check the instrument internal temperature, active cold source temperature and ambient temperature. 3) Analysis the angular behaviour of the processed brightness temperatures. -Temporal resolution: 30 minutes -Spatial resolution: incident angle of observation ranges from 40° to 70° in step of 5°. The area of footprint ranges between 3.31 m^2 and 43.64 m^2 -Accuracy of Measurement: Brightness temperature, 1 K; Soil moisture, 0.001 m^3 m^-3; Soil temperature, 0.1 °C -Unit: Brightness temperature, K; Soil moisture, m^3 m^-3; Soil temperature, °C/K
BOB Su, WEN Jun
This data set includes the monthly average actual evapotranspiration of the Tibet Plateau from 2001 to 2018. The data set is based on the satellite remote sensing data (MODIS) and reanalysis meteorological data (CMFD), and is calculated by the surface energy balance system model (SEBS). In the process of calculating the turbulent flux, the sub-grid scale topography drag parameterization scheme is introduced to improve the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition, the evapotranspiration of the model is verified by the observation data of six turbulence flux stations on the Tibetan Plateau, which shows high accuracy. The data set can be used to study the characteristics of land-atmosphere interaction and the water cycle in the Tibetan Plateau.
HAN Cunbo, MA Yaoming, WANG Binbin, ZHONG Lei, MA Weiqiang*, CHEN Xuelong, SU Zhongbo
Precipitation estimates with ﬁne quality and spatio-temporal resolutions play signiﬁcant roles in understanding the global and regional cycles of water, carbon, and energy. Satellite-based precipitation products are capable of detecting spatial patterns and temporal variations of precipitation at ﬁne resolutions, which is particularly useful over poorly gauged regions. However, satellite-based precipitation products are the indirect estimates of precipitation, inherently containing regional and seasonal systematic biases and random errors. Focusing on the potential drawbacks in generating Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) and its recently updated retrospective IMERG in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) era (ﬁnished in July 2019), which were only calibrated at a monthly scale using ground observations, Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC, 1.0◦/monthly), we aim to propose a new calibration algorithm for IMERG at a daily scale and to provide a new AIMERG precipitation dataset (0.1◦/half-hourly, 2000–2015, Asia) with better quality, calibrated by Asian Precipitation – Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE, 0.25◦/daily) at the daily scale for the Asian applications. Considering the advantages from both satellite-based precipitation estimates and the ground observations, AIMERG performs better than IMERG at different spatio-temporal scales, in terms of both systematic biases and random errors, over mainland China.
The field observation platform of the Tibetan Plateau is the forefront of scientific observation and research on the Tibetan Plateau. The land surface processes and environmental changes based comprehensive observation of the land-boundary layer in the Tibetan Plateau provides valuable data for the study of the mechanism of the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its effects. This dataset integrates the 2005-2016 hourly atmospheric, soil hydrothermal and turbulent fluxes observations of Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS/CAS), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment, CAS (SETORS), the BJ site of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment, CAS (NPCE-BJ), Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, CAS (NAMORS), Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station, CAS (NADORS), Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station, CAS (MAWORS). It contains gradient observation data composed of multi-layer wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation data, four-component radiation data, multi-layer soil temperature and humidity and soil heat flux data, and turbulence data composed of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and carbon dioxide flux. These data can be widely used in the analysis of the characteristics of meteorological elements on the Tibetan Plaetau, the evaluation of remote sensing products and development of the remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and the evaluation and development of numerical models.
This data set describes the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation in the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin. We integrate (CMA, GLDAS, ITP-Forcing, MERRA2, TRMM) five sets of reanalysis precipitation products and satellite precipitation products, and combine the observation precipitation of 9 national meteorological stations from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and 166 rain gauges of the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) in the basin. The time range is 1981-2016, the time resolution is 3 hours, the spatial resolution is 5 km, and the unit is mm/h. The data will provide better data support for the study of Upper Brahmaputra River Basin, and can be used to study the response of hydrological process to climate change. Please refer to the instruction document uploaded with the data for specific usage information.
WANG Yuanwei, WANG Lei, LI Xiuping, ZHOU Jing
The UHSLC offers tide gauge data with two levels of quality-control (QC). Fast Delivery (FD) data are released within 1-2 months of data collection and receive only basic QC focused on large level shifts and obvious outliers. The GLOSS/CLIVAR (formerly known as the WOCE) "fast" sea level data is distributed as hourly, daily, and monthly values. This project is supported by the NOAA Climate and Global Change program, and is one of the activities of the University of Hawaii Sea Level Center. Each file is given a name "h###.dat" where "h" denotes hourly sea level data and "###" denotes the station number. A file exists for every station with hourly data. The UHSLC datasets are GLOSS data streams (read more here). There are many tide gauge records in the UHSLC database, but the backbone is the GLOSS Core Network (GCN) – a global set of ~300 tide gauge stations that serve as the foundation of the global in situ sea level network. The network is designed to provide evenly distributed sampling of global coastal sea level variation at a variety of time-scales.
DONG Wen, University of hawaii sealevel center （UHSLC）
Contact SupportNorthwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS 0931-4967287 email@example.com
LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center