The Antarctic

Brief Introduction:The Antarctic is one of the cold sources of the Earth's atmosphere and a region that is sensitive to climate change. With global warming, Antarctica has become a key area for international programs to study global climate change. Most of the world's ice and snow is stored in the Antarctic, and more than 95% of Antarctica is covered by ice sheets with an average thickness of 2,000 meters, ice shelves and snow that is not covered all year round. It has an ice continent that can raise the global sea level by 66 meters.

Publish Datetime:2020-06-23

Number of Datasets:49

  • NSIDC Antarctic sea ice dataset (1978-2017)

    The data sets include four sets of data obtained from the Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) sensors using passive microwave remote sensing inversion. SMMR was aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite, and its working period was from October 26, 1978 to July 8, 1987. Since July 1987, the data provided by the SSM/I and the SSMIS aboard the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite group have been used. The first three data sets contain sea ice concentration data, covering the Antarctic region with a spatial resolution of 25 km: (1) The data were obtained from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Version 1 by applying the NASA Team algorithm inversion. The temporal coverage is from November 1978 to February 2017, with a temporal resolution of one month. A bin file is stored every month. (2) The data source is the same as the first set. The temporal coverage is from 1978-10-26 to 2017-2-28. The temporal resolution is two days, and the spatial resolution is 25 km. A folder was stored every year, and a bin file was stored every other day. (3) The data were obtained from near-real-time DMSP SSMIS by applying the NASA Team algorithm inversion. The temporal coverage is from 2015-1-1 to 2018-2-3, and the temporal resolution is one day. A bin file is stored every day. Each file consists of a 300-byte file title (data time information, projection pattern, file name) and a 316*332 matrix. The fourth set of data is the sea ice coverage and sea ice area time series. The temporal coverage is from November 1978 to December 2017. This data set is a time series sequence of sea ice coverage and sea ice area in the Antarctic. The temporal resolution is one month, and an ASCII file is stored every month. Each file consists of a file title (time, data type), a 39*1 sea ice cover matrix and a 39*1 sea ice area matrix. For further details on the data, please visit the US Ice and Snow Data Center NSIDC website - Data Description http://nsidc.org/data/NSIDC-0051; http://nsidc.org/data/NSIDC-0081; http://nsidc.org/data/G02135

    2020-06-03 0 View Details

  • Half degree global MODIS IGBP land cover types (2001-2012)

    The MODIS land cover type product is a data classification product (MOD12Q1) with different classification schemes for land cover features extracted from Terra data each year. These data are generated by reprojecting the standard MODIS land cover product MOD12Q1 to geographic coordinates with a spatial resolution of one-half degree. The basic land cover classification comprises the 17 types defined by the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP): 11 types of natural vegetation classification, 3 types of land use and land inlays, and 3 types of nonvegetation land classification. It covers a longitude range of -180-180 degrees and a latitude range of -64-84 degrees. The data are in GeoTIFF format. This data are free to use, and the copyright belongs to the University of Maryland Department of Geography and NASA.

    2020-06-03 0 View Details

  • Global ESA CCI land cover classification map (1992-2015)

    The land cover classification product is the second phase product of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with a spatial resolution of 300 meters and a temporal coverage of 1992-2015. The spatial coverage is latitude -90-90 degrees, longitude -180-180 degrees, and the coordinate system is the geographic coordinate WGS84. The classification of the surface coverage is based on the Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. When the data are used for scientific research purposes, the ESA CCI Land Cover project should be acknowledged. In addition, the published article should be send to contact@esalandcover-cci.org.

    2020-06-03 0 View Details

  • NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 1.0 (1948-2017)

    NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 is an assimilation of data from the past (1948-recent). It was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) in the US to act as an advanced analysis and prediction system. Most of the data are from the original daily average data of the PSD (Physical Sciences Division). However, the data from 1948 to 1957 are slightly different because these data are conventional (non-Gaussian) grid data. The information published on the official website is generally from 1948 to the present, and the latest information is generally updated every two days. For data on an isostatic surface, the general vertical resolution is 17 layers, from 1000 hPa to 10 hPa. The horizontal resolution is typically 2.5° x 2.5°. The NCEP reanalysis data are systematically comparable among international atmospheric science reanalysis data sets. Compared with the reanalysis data of the European Center, the initial year is earlier, and the latest data updates are more frequent. These two sets of reanalysis data are currently the most widely used data sets in the world. For details of the data, please visit the following website: https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.html

    2020-06-03 0 View Details

  • Global land surface microwave emissivity dataset from AMSR-E (2002-2012)

    The aerosol optical thickness data of the Arctic Alaska station is based on the observation data products of the atmospheric radiation observation plan of the U.S. Department of energy at the Arctic Alaska station. The data coverage time is updated from 2017 to 2019, with the time resolution of hour by hour. The coverage site is the northern Alaska station, with the longitude and latitude coordinates of (71 ° 19 ′ 22.8 ″ n, 156 ° 36 ′ 32.4 ″ w). The source of the observed data is retrieved from the radiation data observed by mfrsr instrument. The characteristic variable is aerosol optical thickness, and the error range of the observed inversion is about 15%. The data format is NC format. The aerosol optical thickness data of Qomolangma station and Namuco station in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is based on the observation data products of Qomolangma station and Namuco station from the atmospheric radiation view of the Institute of Qinghai Tibet Plateau of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data coverage time is from 2017 to 2019, the time resolution is hour by hour, the coverage sites are Qomolangma station and Namuco station, the longitude and latitude coordinates are (Qomolangma station: 28.365n, 86.948e, Namuco station Mucuo station: 30.7725n, 90.9626e). The source of the observed data is retrieved from the radiation data observed by mfrsr instrument. The characteristic variable is aerosol optical thickness, and the error range of the observed inversion is about 15%. The data format is TXT.

    2020-06-03 0 View Details

  • Prokaryotic distribution over the Arctic, Antarctic and Tibetan glaciers V1.0 (2010-2018)

    The data set of prokaryotic microorganism distribution in the snow and ice of the Arctic Antarctic and the Tibetan Plateau provides the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence collected by the experimental group led by Yongqin Liu from the NCBI database during 2010 to 2018. The keywords for NCBI database search are Antarctic, Arctic Tibetan, and Glacier. The collected sequences were calculated using the DOTOUR software to obtain the similarities between sequences, the sequences with similarities above 97% were clustered into one OTU, and the OTU representative sequence was defined. The OTU representative sequence was compared with the RDP database by the "Classifier" software and was identified as level one when the reliability exceeded 80%. After acquiring the sequence, the GPS coordinates of the sample were obtained by reading the sample information in the sequence file. These data contain the sequence of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments for each sequence, evolutionary classification, and sample GPS coordinates. Compared with sequences based on high-throughput sequencing, these data have a longer sequence and more accurate classification. It is significant for comparing the evolutionary information of three-pole microorganisms and understanding the evolution of psychrophilic microorganisms.

    2020-06-03 0 View Details

  • Dataset of ERA-interim global surface air temperature reanalysis (1979-2016)

    The data set of ERA-Interim global surface air temperature reanalysis (1979-2016) was obtained from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) by adopting the ECMWF IFS forecasting system (T255, 60 layers) and using the four-dimensional variational assimilation system (8DVAR) with an analysis window of 12 hours to assimilate satellite remote sensing data (TOVS, GOES, Meteosat, etc.) and regular observations of the surface and upper atmosphere in different regions of the world and from different sources. The surface air temperature (2 m air temperature) data span the time range from January 1979 to December 2016 and cover the whole world with the projection of equal latitude and longitude, a temporal resolution of six hours, and a horizontal resolution of 0.75. The data were stored as a NetCDF format file once a month and included longitude, latitude, time, and temperature (t2m, unit: K), with 241 latitudinal grid points and 480 longitudinal grid points.

    2020-06-03 0 View Details

  • Ice velocity of the Amery ice shelf in the Antarctic (Version 1.0) (2003-2013)

    Using the Modis1B data of 11 scenes from 2003 to 2013 (the ice shelf Modis1B data published on the NSIDC website), the surface velocity of the Antarctic Amery Ice Shelf was extracted by the subpixel cross-correlation method, the ice velocity was extracted by the COSI-Corr software, and then the time sequence of annual average velocities for nearly ten years was obtained. Due to the lack of field observations in the study area, the accuracy of the ice flow results was estimated by using the offset value of the stable region, and the ice flow error was approximately ±50 m/year. The ice velocity data date from 2003 to 2013, the temporal resolution is one year, and the data cover the Amery area with a spatial resolution of 500 m. A GeoTIFF file of velocity data is stored every year. For details regarding the data, please refer to the Amery Ice Flow Field - Data Description.

    2020-04-29 0 View Details

  • Bacteria distribution in the Arctic and Antarctic (version 1.0) (2005-2006)

    The Antarctic and Arctic bacterial distribution data set provides distribution characteristics of bacteria in the Arctic and Antarctic. The collection period of the samples was from December 13,2005, to December 8,2006; 52 samples were obtained from 3 Arctic regions (Spitsbergen Slijeringa, Spitsbergen Vestpynten, and Alexandra Fjord_Highlands), and 171 samples were obtained from 5 Antarctic regions (the Mitchell Peninsula, Casey station main Power house, Robinsons Ridge, Herring Island, and Browning Peninsula). The soil surface samples were stored in liquid nitrogen after collection, shipped to a Sydney laboratory, and extracted using the FastPrep DNA kit. The extracted DNA samples were processed by 27F (5'-GAGTTTGATCNTGGCTCA-3' and 519R (5'-GTNTTACNGCGGCKGCTG-3') to amplify the 16S rRNA gene fragments. The amplified fragments were sequenced by the 454 method, and the raw data were analyzed by Mothur software. First, the sequences with poor sequencing quality were removed, the sequences were then sorted, and the chimera sequences were removed. The similarities between the sequences were calculated, the sequences with similarities above 97% were clustered into one OTU, and the OTU representative sequence was defined. By comparison with the Silva database, the OTU sequences with reliabilities greater than 80% were identified as level one. This data system compared the diversity of microorganisms in the eastern Antarctic with that in the Arctic and is of great significance for the study of the distributions of microorganisms in the Antarctic and Arctic.

    2020-04-29 0 View Details

  • Elevation data of Antarctic (2003)

    This data set provides a 1 km resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Antarctica. The DEM combines measurements from the European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) Satellite Radar Altimeter (SRA) and the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The ERS-1 data are from two long repeat cycles of 168 days initiated in March 1994, and the GLAS data are from 20 February 2003 through 21 March 2008. The data set is approximately 240 MB comprised of two gridded binary files and two Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) header files viewable using ENVI or other similar software packages. The data are available via FTP.

    2020-03-13 0 View Details

  • The 30-minute flux data in three pole region (2000-2016)

    The dataset is a 30-minute eddy covariance flux observation data from nine flux stations in the Three Poles, including the data of ecosystem Net Carbon Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity(GPP), and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) . The time coverage of the data is from 2000 to 2016. The main steps of data pre-processing include outlier removal (±3σ), coordinate axis rotation(three-dimensional wind rotation), Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction, outlier elimination, carbon flux interpolation and decomposition. And missing data is interpolated by the nonlinear empirical formula between CO2 flux value(Fc) and environmental factors.

    2020-01-19 0 View Details

  • SAR ice sheet freezing-thawing data for Antarctica and Greenland V1.0 (2015-2019)

    At present, based on the proposed SAR ice sheet freeze-thaw detection algorithm using change detection and decision tree algorithm, the monthly average ice sheet freeze-thaw is detected using sentinel-1 EW SAR data. At the same time, using the developed production module of freeze-thaw products based on big data platform, the international first production of Antarctic ice sheet and Greenland ice sheet freeze-thaw products. Through the development of automatic weather station temperature data, the ice sheet freeze-thaw detection accuracy reaches 90%. At present, the acquisition time of data products is mainly the summer of the north and south poles, among which the Antarctic ice sheet products are January, February, March, October, November, December and Greenland products are may, June, July, August, September and October.

    2020-01-19 0 View Details

  • Radiometer ice sheet freezing-thawing data for Antarctica and Greenland V1.0 (2016-2019)

    The coverage time of microwave radiometer ice sheet freeze-thaw data set is updated to 2016-2019, with a spatial resolution of 25 km; the remote sensing inversion method based on microwave radiometer adopts the improved wavelet based ice sheet freeze-thaw detection algorithm, which takes into account the change of ice sheet freeze-thaw brightness temperature characteristics in time. First, the long-time brightness temperature data of all ice sheet areas in Greenland is small by using wavelet transform. The multi-scale decomposition of wave is used to analyze the edge information at different scales. Thirdly, the edge information of ice sheet melting and refreezing is separated from the noise by ANOVA. Based on the extracted edge information of long-term brightness and temperature change of ice sheet, the optimal edge threshold of dry snow and wet snow classification is determined by using the generalized Gaussian model, so as to detect the melting area of Greenland ice sheet. Finally, based on the principle of space automatic error correction, the error results caused by noise are detected by using the space neighborhood error correction operator, and the error is corrected manually. The brightness and temperature data of passive microwave in long time series come from SMMR, SSM / I and SSMI / s sensors. To ensure simultaneous interpreting of the brightness temperature of different sensors, simultaneous interpreting of different sensor brightness temperatures is made before freezing and thawing. Through the verification of the actual measurement site, it shows that the detection accuracy of Greenland ice sheet freeze-thaw is more than 70%.

    2020-01-19 0 View Details

  • Radiometer and scatterometer data for Antarctica and the Arctic ice sheet (1978-2015)

    The microwave radiometer data set comprises brightness temperature data from SMMR (1978-1987), SSM/I (1987-2009) and SSMIS (2009-2015), with temporal coverage from 1978 to 2015 and a spatial resolution of 25 km. Each Antarctic data file consists of 316*332 grids, and each Arctic freeze-thaw data file consists of 304*448 grids. The microwave scatterometer data set comprises backscattering data from QScat (2000-2009) and ASCAT (2009-2015), with a temporal coverage from 2000 to 2015 and a spatial resolution of 4.45 km. Each Antarctic data file consists of 1940*1940 grids, and each Arctic data file consists of 810*680 grids. The temporal resolution of the data set is one day, and the data cover both Antarctica and Arctic ice sheets.

    2020-01-19 0 View Details

  • Antarctic 1:1,000,000 administrative boundary dataset (2014)

    Antarctic administrative boundary datasets consist of the properties of the state boundaries of the Antarctic states (properties properties), and the corresponding names and types of those properties :(CITY_POP), (ENG_NAME), (CNTRY_NAME), (TYPE), (CNTRY_CODE), (YEAR). The data comes from the 1:100,000 ADC_WorldMap global data set,The data through topology, warehousing and other data quality inspection,Data through the topology, into the library,It's comprehensive, up-to-date and seamless geodigital data. The world map coordinate system is latitude and longitude, WGS84 datum surface,Antarctic specific projection parameters(South_Pole_Stereographic).

    2020-01-12 0 View Details

  • Aerosol optical thickness  in the three polar region V1.0 (2000-2019)

    The "poles AOD Collection 1.0" aerosol optical thickness (AOD) data set adopts the self-developed visible band remote sensing inversion method, combined with the merra-2 model data and the official NASA product mod04. The data covers from 2000 to 2019, with the time resolution of day by day, covering the "three poles" (Antarctic, Arctic and Qinghai Tibet Plateau) area, and the spatial resolution of 0.1. Degree. The inversion method mainly uses the self-developed APRs algorithm to invert the aerosol optical thickness over ice and snow. The algorithm considers the BRDF characteristics of ice and snow surface, and is suitable for the inversion of aerosol optical thickness over ice and snow. The experimental results show that the relative deviation of the data is less than 35%, which can effectively improve the coverage and accuracy of the aerosol optical thickness in the polar region.

    2020-01-12 0 View Details

  • Antarctic and Actic sea ice data set (1979-2019)

    The original data of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice data set is generated by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) through remote sensing data. The data format is GeoTIFF format and image format. The spatial resolution of the data is 25km and the time resolution is day. The data content is the sea ice range and sea ice density of the north and south poles. In this study, NetCDF format products are generated by post-processing the extent and density of sea ice in the north and south poles. The product data includes the sea ice range and sea ice density data of the north and south poles from 1979 to 2019. The time resolution is day by day, the coverage range is the South Pole and the north pole, and the horizontal spatial resolution is 12.5km. The data value of 1 in the sea ice range matrix indicates that the grid is sea ice, and the sea ice density is expressed by 0-1000. The grid value divided by 10 is the sea ice density value of the grid.

    2019-11-17 0 View Details

  • The Ice-core Dataset in Three Pole (1968-2015)

    The data of triode ice core mainly comes from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/ice-core). The original data is mainly in text format, which is provided by relevant units and researchers voluntarily. The data mainly includes the original observation data such as oxygen isotope, greenhouse gas concentration, ice core age, etc., as well as the historical temperature, carbon dioxide concentration and methane concentration produced by the researchers according to the observation data. The data are mainly divided into Antarctic, Arctic, Greenland and the third polar region. The database includes drilling address, time, derivative products, corresponding observation site data, references and other elements. Derivative products include product name, type, time and other elements. The space location is divided into the south pole, the north pole and the third pole, including Alaska, Canada, Russia, Greenland and other regions. After sorting and post-processing the collected data, the ice core database is established by using the access database management system of Microsoft office. According to the Antarctic, Arctic, Greenland and the third pole, it is divided into four sub databases. The first table in each database is readme, which contains information and references of each data table.

    2019-11-17 0 View Details

  • Antarctic pioneer plant abundance data products (2017-2018)

    The Antarctic Peninsula is also called "Palmer peninsula" or "Graham land". Located in the southwest polar continent, it is the largest peninsula in the Antarctic continent and the farthest peninsula extending northward into the ocean (63 ° south latitude), bordering the Weddell Sea and berengske sea in the East and West. The Antarctic Peninsula is known as the "tropics" of Antarctica. This is a typical sub polar marine climate. Compared with the Antarctic continent, it is one of the warmest and wettest regions in Antarctica. There are a small number of pioneer plants distributed on the islands in the marginal area, mainly bryophytes and lichens. The plant abundance data products of Antarctic Peninsula and its surrounding areas are matched with remote sensing images through measured spectra, and the end element spectra of moss, lichen, rock, sea and snow are extracted with pure pixel PPI. The linear mixture model (LMM) is applied to calculate.

    2019-10-26 0 View Details

  • Antarctic pioneer plant cover classification data (2017-2018)

    The Antarctic Peninsula is also called "Palmer peninsula" or "Graham land". Located in the southwest polar continent, it is the largest peninsula in the Antarctic continent and the farthest peninsula extending northward into the ocean (63 ° south latitude), bordering the Weddell Sea and berengske sea in the East and West. The Antarctic Peninsula is known as the "tropics" of Antarctica. This is a typical sub polar marine climate. Compared with the Antarctic continent, it is one of the warmest and wettest regions in Antarctica. There are a small number of pioneer plants distributed on the islands in the marginal area, mainly bryophytes and lichens. The plant abundance data products of Antarctic Peninsula and its surrounding areas are matched with remote sensing images through measured spectra, and the end element spectra of moss, lichen, rock, sea and snow are extracted with pure pixel PPI. The linear mixture model (LMM) is applied to calculate. The vegetation coverage of Fildes Peninsula is obtained according to the linear relationship between the vegetation coverage and the abundance.

    2019-10-26 0 View Details