This dataset is global respiration data, including autotrophic respiration (ra) and heterotrophic respiration (rh). It is simulated by TaiESM1 model in Phase 6 of the Coupling Model Comparison Plan (CMIP6) under historical scenarios. The data time range is 1850-2014, the time resolution is month, and the spatial resolution is about 0.9 ° x1.25 °. Analog Data Details Visible Link https://www.wdc-climate.de/ui/cmip6?input=CMIP6.CMIP.AS -RCEC.TaiESM1.historical。
Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI)
The three pole soil microbial post-treatment products in typical years collected the distribution and analysis results of soil samples from the north and south polar regions from 2005 to 2006 and the distribution and analysis results of soil samples from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2015. Through sorting and summarizing, the post-processing data products of soil microorganisms in the three pole region are obtained. The data format is excel, which is convenient for users to view. Among them, the collection time of samples from the north and south polar regions was from December 13, 2005 to December 8, 2006, including 52 samples from three regions in the Arctic (Spitsbergen slijeringa, Spitsbergen vestpynten, and Alexandra fjord Highlands), and 171 samples from five regions in the Antarctic (Mitchell Peninsula, Casey station main power house, Robinson ridge, herring Island, browning Peninsula); The Qinghai Tibet Plateau was collected from July 1 to July 15, 2015, including meadow, grassland and desert ecosystems. There were 18 sampling points in total, and the number of samples at each sampling point was 3-5. The precipitation, air temperature and drought degree of the sampling point are estimated from the meteorological information for reference. The soil surface samples were collected and stored in liquid nitrogen, then transported back to the Sydney Laboratory for extraction by fastprep DNA kit. The extracted DNA samples were amplified with the 16S rRNA gene fragment using 27F (5'-gagttttgatcntggctca-3') and 519r (5'-gtnttacngcgckctg-3'). The amplified fragments were sequenced by 454 method, and the original data were analyzed by mothur software. The sequences with poor sequencing quality were first removed, and then the chimeric sequences were sequenced and removed. After that, the similarity between sequences is calculated. Sequences with a similarity of more than 97% are clustered into one OTU, and OTU representative sequences are defined. The OTU representative sequences were aligned with the Silva database, and were identified to belong to the first level when the reliability was greater than 80%.
Soil freezing depth (SFD) is necessary to evaluate the balance of water resources, surface energy exchange and biogeochemical cycle change in frozen soil area. It is an important indicator of climate change in the cryosphere and is very important to seasonal frozen soil and permafrost. This data is based on Stefan equation, using the daily temperature prediction data and E-factor data of canems2 (rcp45 and rcp85), gfdl-esm2m (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85), hadgem2-es (rcp26, rcp45 and rcp85), ipsl-cm5a-lr (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85), miroc5 (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85) and noresm1-m (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60 and rcp85), The data set of annual average soil freezing depth in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees from 2007 to 2065 was obtained.
PAN Xiaoduo, LI Hu
Soil moisture is an important boundary condition of earth-atmosphere exchanges, and it has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. Vegetation optical depth is a physical variable to measure the attenuation of vegetation in microwave radiative transfer model, and it has been proved to be a good indicator of vegetation water content and biomass. This dataset uses the multi-channel collaborative algorithm (MCCA) to retrieve both soil moisture and polarized vegetation optical depth with SMAP brightness temperature. The algorithm uses a self-constraint relationship between land parameters and an analytical relationship between brightness temperature at different channels to perform the retrieval process. The MCCA does not depend on other auxiliary data on vegetation properties and can be applied to a variety of satellites. The soil moisture product from this dataset includes the soil moisture content in the unfrozen period and the liquid water content in the frozen period. Both horizontal- and vertical-polarization vegetation optical depth are retrieved. So far as we know, it is the first polarization-dependent vegetation optical depth product at L-band. This dataset was validated by 19 dense soil moisture observation networks (9 core validation sites used by SMAP team and 13 sites not used by them), and the widely used soil climate analysis network (SCAN). It was found that ubRMSE (unbiased root mean square error) of MCCA retrieved soil moisture is generally smaller than that of other SMAP products.
ZHAO Tianjie, PENG Zhiqing , YAO Panpan, SHI Jiancheng
Rainfall erosivity is one of the important basic data to quantify soil erosion in the Tibet Plateau. High precision rainfall erosivity data is the key to understand the current situation of soil and water loss in theTibet Plateau and formulate soil and water conservation measures. Meanwhile, it can provide a powerful reference for the prevention and control of geological disasters in the Tibet Plateau. Based on the 1-min dense precipitation observations and the grid precipitation product, a new annual rainfall erosivity dataset in Tibet Plateau from 1950 to 2020 is constructed through the steps of correction, reconstruction and validation. This dataset is the rainfall erosivity data set with the highest accuracy and the longest time series in the Tibet Plateau.
Based on 11 well-acknowledged global-scale microwave remote sensing-based surface soil moisture products, and with 9 main quality impact factors of microwave-based soil moisture retrieval incorporated, we developed the Remote Sensing-based global Surface Soil Moisture dataset (RSSSM, 2003~2020) through a complicated neural network approach. The spatial resolution of RSSSM is 0.1°, while the temporal resolution is approximately 10 days. The original dataset covered 2003~2018, but now it has been updated to 2020. RSSSM dataset is outstanding in terms of temporal continuity, and has full spatial coverage except for snow, ice and water bodies. The comparison against the global-scale in-situ soil moisture measurements indicates that RSSSM has a higher spatial and temporal accuracy than most of the frequently-used global/regional long-term surface soil moisture datasets. In addition, although RSSSM is remote sensing based, without the incorporation of any precipitation data or records, its interannual variation generally conforms with that of precipitation (e.g., the GPM IMERG precipitation data) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Moreover, RSSSM can also reflect the impact of human activities, e.g., urbanization, cropland irrigation and afforestation on soil moisture changes to some degree. The data is in ‘Tiff’ format, and the size after compression is 2.48 GB. The relevant data describing paper has been published in the Journal ‘Earth System Science Data’ in 2021.
CHEN Yongzhe, FENG Xiaoming, FU Bojie
This biophysical permafrost zonation map was produced using a rule-based GIS model that integrated a new permafrost extent, climate conditions, vegetation structure, soil and topographic conditions, as well as a yedoma map. Different from the previous maps, permafrost in this map is classified into five types: climate-driven, climate-driven/ecosystem-modified, climate-driven/ecosystem protected, ecosystem-driven, and ecosystem-protected. Excluding glaciers and lakes, the areas of these five types in the Northern Hemisphere are 3.66×106 km2, 8.06×106 km2, 0.62×106 km2, 5.79×106 km2, and 1.63×106 km2, respectively. 81% of the permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere are modified, driven, or protected by ecosystems, indicating the dominant role of ecosystems in permafrost stability in the Northern Hemisphere. Permafrost driven solely by climate occupies 19% of permafrost regions, mainly in High Arctic and high mountains areas, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
RAN Youhua, M. Torre Jorgenson, LI Xin, JIN Huijun, Wu Tonghua, Li Ren, CHENG Guodong
The Tibet-Obs established in 2008 consists of three regional-scale soil moisture (SM) monitoring networks, i.e. the Maqu, Naqu, and Ngari (including Ali and Shiquanhe) networks. This surface SM dataset includes the original 15-min in situ measurements collected at a depth of 5 cm by multiple SM monitoring sites of all the networks, and the spatially upscaled SM records produced for the Maqu and Shiquanhe networks.
ZHANG Pei, ZHENG Donghai, WEN Jun, ZENG Yijian, WANG Xin, WANG Zuoliang, MA Yaoming, SU Zhongbo
The data set contains the data set (98 ° 29′16″E, 31 ° Based on hobo temperature, moisture and small meteorological station, the monitoring data of shallow ground temperature, moisture and field meteorological elements of 36 ′ 36 ″ n) freeze-thaw landslide and thaw mud flow are obtained through field monitoring. The observation time is between August 31, 2019 and July 14, 2020. Through on-site monitoring of a complete freeze-thaw cycle, the monitoring data of ground temperature, moisture and meteorological elements automatically obtained by on-site sensors are downloaded. Through certain quality control, the data when the sensors are not fully adapted to the soil environment and the system error caused by sensor failure are eliminated. The observation depth of ground temperature is 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 100cm, 150cm and 200cm, with a total of 8 layers. The observation depth of water is 20cm, 50cm, 100cm and 200cm, with a total of 4 layers. Meteorological observation elements mainly include temperature, rainfall, wind speed, wind direction and solar radiation. The observation interval is 30 minutes (Note: the maximum range of solar radiation sensor is 1276.8 w / m2, and the actual solar radiation value is 1276.9 w / m2 when it is greater than the maximum range; The minimum starting wind speed of the wind speed sensor is 0.5m/s. When the actual wind speed is less than the starting wind speed, the display value is 0. Therefore, the data can not reflect the phenomenon of super solar constant and wind speed below 0.5m/s). Quality control includes eliminating the data when the sensor is not fully adapted to the soil environment and the system error caused by sensor failure. The corrected final data is stored in Excel file. The integrity and accuracy of the obtained field data are more than 95% after review by many people. The monitoring data can provide the necessary data support for the research of freeze-thaw landslide and thaw mud flow in Southeast Tibet.
The data set contains soil physicochemical properties of ten scientific expedition routes in Qinghai-Tibet Plateu during 2019-2021, including sample colletor, sampling time, sampling location, longitude and latitude, altitude, vegetation type, sampling depth, soil water content, pH, organic matter content, total carbon content, total nitrogen content, total phosphorus content, inorganic nitrogen content, heavy metal elements content, and etc. The physicochemical properties were measured in the laboratory with quality control, including measuring blanks, replicates and standard samples.The data set can be used for evaluating soil quality and function under the influence of climate change and human activities.
Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems because it links the hydrological, energy, and carbon cycles. However, accurately monitoring and understanding the spatial and temporal variability of ETa over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) remains very difficult. Here, the multiyear (2000-2018) monthly ETa on the TP was estimated using the MOD16-STM model supported by datasets of soil properties, meteorological conditions, and remote sensing. The estimated ETa correlates very well with measurements from 9 flux towers, with low root mean square errors (average RMSE = 13.48 mm/month) and mean bias (average MB = 2.85 mm/month), and strong correlation coefficients (R = 0.88) and the index of agreement values (IOA = 0.92). The spatially averaged ETa of the entire TP and the eastern TP (Lon > 90°E) increased significantly, at rates of 1.34 mm/year (p < 0.05) and 2.84 mm/year (p < 0.05) from 2000 to 2018, while no pronounced trend was detected on the western TP (Lon < 90°E). The spatial distribution of ETa and its components were heterogeneous, decreasing from the southeastern to northwestern TP. ETa showed a significantly increasing trend in the eastern TP, and a significant decreasing trend throughout the year in the southwestern TP, particularly in winter and spring. Soil evaporation (Es) accounted for more than 84% of ETa and the spatial distribution of temporal trends was similar to that of ETa over the TP. The amplitudes and rates of variations in ETa were greatest in spring and summer. The multi-year averaged annual terrestrial ETa (over an area of 2444.18×103 km2) was 376.91±13.13 mm/year, equivalent to a volume of 976.52±35.7 km3/year. The average annual evapotranspirated water volume over the whole TP (including all plateau lakes, with an area of 2539.49×103 km2) was about 1028.22±37.8 km3/year. This new estimated ETa dataset is useful for investigating the hydrological impacts of land cover change and will help with better management of watershed water resources across the TP.
MA Yaoming, CHEN Xuelong,
This data includes the soil microbial composition data in permafrost of different ages in Barrow area of the Arctic. It can be used to explore the response of soil microorganisms to the thawing in permafrost of different ages. This data is generated by high through-put sequencing using the earth microbiome project primers are 515f – 806r. The region amplified is the V4 hypervariable region, and the sequencing platform is Illumina hiseq PE250; This data is used in the articles published in cryosphere, Permafrost thawing exhibits a greater influence on bacterial richness and community structure than permafrost age in Arctic permafrost soils. The Cryosphere, 2020, 14, 3907–3916, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3907-2020https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3907-2020 . This data can also be used for the comparative analysis of soil microorganisms across the three poles.
Agricultural irrigation consumes a large amount of available freshwater resources and is the most immediate human disturbance to the natural water cycle process, with accelerated regional water cycles accompanied by cooling effects. Therefore, estimating irrigation water use (IWU) is important for exploring the impact of human activities on the natural water cycle, quantifying water resources budget, and optimizing agricultural water management. However, the current irrigation data are mainly based on the survey statistics, which is scattered and lacks uniformity, and cannot meet the demand for estimating the spatial and temporal changes of IWU. The Global Irrigation Water Use Estimation Dataset (2011-2018) is calculated by the satellite soil moisture, precipitation, vegetation index, and meteorological data (such as incoming radiation and temperature) based on the principle of soil water balance. The framework of IWU estimation in this study coupled the remotely sensed evapotranspiration process module and the data-model fusion algorithm based on differential evolution. The IWU estimates provided from this dataset have small bias at different spatial scales (e.g., regional, state/province and national) compared to traditional discrete survey statistics, such as at Chinese provinces for 2015 (bias = −3.10 km^3), at U.S. states for 2013 (bias = −0.42 km^3), and at various FAO countries (bias = −10.84 km^3). Also, the ensemble IWU estimates show lower uncertainty compared to the results derived from individual precipitation and soil moisture satellite products. The dataset is unified using a global geographic latitude and longitude grid, with associated metadata stored in corresponding NetCDF file. The spatial resolution is about 25 km, the time resolution is monthly, and the time span is 2011-2018. This dataset will help to quantitatively assess the spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural irrigation water use during the historical period and support scientific agricultural water management.
ZHANG Kun, LI Xin, ZHENG Donghai, ZHANG Ling, ZHU Gaofeng
The data set includes soil pH data of representative soil samples collected from July 2012 to August 2013 in the Heihe River Basin. The first soil survey was conducted in 2012. After the representativeness evaluation of collected samples, we conducted an additional sampling in 2013. These samples are representative enough to represent the soil variation in the Heihe River Basin, of which the soil variation in each landscape could be accounted for. The sampling depths in field refer to the sampling specification of Chinese Soil Taxonomy, in which soil samples were taken from genetic soil horizons.
The field observation platform of the Tibetan Plateau is the forefront of scientific observation and research on the Tibetan Plateau. The land surface processes and environmental changes based comprehensive observation of the land-boundary layer in the Tibetan Plateau provides valuable data for the study of the mechanism of the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its effects. This dataset integrates the 2005-2016 hourly atmospheric, soil hydrothermal and turbulent fluxes observations of Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS/CAS), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment, CAS (SETORS), the BJ site of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment, CAS (NPCE-BJ), Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, CAS (NAMORS), Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station, CAS (NADORS), Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station, CAS (MAWORS). It contains gradient observation data composed of multi-layer wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation data, four-component radiation data, multi-layer soil temperature and humidity and soil heat flux data, and turbulence data composed of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and carbon dioxide flux. These data can be widely used in the analysis of the characteristics of meteorological elements on the Tibetan Plaetau, the evaluation of remote sensing products and development of the remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and the evaluation and development of numerical models.
The data set includes soil bulk density data of representative soil samples collected from July 2012 to August 2013 in the Heihe River Basin. The first soil survey was conducted in 2012. After the representativeness evaluation of collected samples, we conducted an additional sampling in 2013. These samples are representative enough to represent the soil variation in the Heihe River Basin, of which the soil variation in each landscape could be accounted for. The sampling depths in field refer to the sampling specification of Chinese Soil Taxonomy, in which soil samples were taken from genetic soil horizons.
The data set includes soil organic carbon concentrations data of representative soil samples collected from July 2012 to August 2013 in the Heihe River Basin. The first soil survey was conducted in 2012. After the representativeness evaluation of collected samples, we conducted an additional sampling in 2013. These samples are representative enough to represent the soil variation in the Heihe River Basin, of which the soil variation in each landscape could be accounted for. The sampling depths in field refer to the sampling specification of Chinese Soil Taxonomy, in which soil samples were taken from genetic soil horizons.
This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Daman Superstation from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (100.372° E, 38.856° N) was located on a cropland (maize surface) in the Daman irrigation, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (AV-14TH;3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 2.5 m, 8 m in west of tower), four-component radiometer (PIR&PSP; 12 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 12 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (LI190SB; 12 m, towards south, vertically upward; another four photosynthetically active radiation, PQS-1; two above the plants (12 m) and two below the plants (0.3 m), towards south, each with one vertically downward and one vertically upward), soil heat flux (HFP01SC; 3 duplicates with G1 below the vegetation; G2 and G3 between plants, -0.06 m), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (TCAV; -0.02, -0.04 m), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_5 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m, Ta_30 m, and Ta_40 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m, RH_30 m, and RH_40 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_5 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m, Ws_30 m, and Ws_40 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_3 m, WD_5 m, WD_10 m, WD_15 m, WD_20 m, WD_30m, and WD_40 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2, and Gs_3, between plants) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content), above the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)), and below the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day.The meterological data during September 17 and November 7 and TCAV data after November 7 were wrong because the malfunction of datalogger. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.
LI Xin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei
The data is based on the Harmonized World Soil Database version 1.1 (HWSD) constructed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Vienna International Institute for Applied Systems (IIASA). The data source of China is 1: 1 million soil data in the second national land survey provided by the Nanjing Soil Research Institute. The data can provide model input parameters for modelers, in agricultural perspective, it can be used to study eco-agricultural zoning, food security and climate change. The data format is grid and the projection is WGS84. The soil classification system used is mainly FAO-90. The main fields of the soil property table include: SU_SYM90 (the soil name in the FAO90 soil classification system); SU_SYM85 (FAO85 classification); T_TEXTURE (top soil texture); DRAINAGE (19.5); REF_DEPTH (soil reference depth); AWC_CLASS (19.5); AWC_CLASS (soil effective water content); PHASE1: Real (soil phase); PHASE2: String (soil phase); ROOTS: String (depth classification with obstacles to the bottom of the soil); SWR: String (soil moisture characteristics); ADD_PROP: Real (a specific soil type related to agricultural use in the soil unit); T_GRAVEL: Real (gravel volume percentage); T_SAND: Real (sand content); T_SILT: Real (silt content); T_CLAY: Real (clay content); T_USDA_TEX: Real (USDA soil texture classification); T_REF_BULK: Real (soil bulk density); T_OC: Real (organic carbon content); T_PH_H2O: Real (pH) T_CEC_CLAY: Real (cation exchange capacity of clay soil); T_CEC_SOIL: Real (cation exchange capacity of soil) T_BS: Real (basic saturation); T_TEB: Real (exchangeable base); T_CACO3: Real (carbonate or lime content) T_CASO4: Real (sulfate content); T_ESP: Real (exchangeable sodium salt); T_ECE: Real (conductivity). The attribute field beginning with T_ indicates the upper soil attribute (0-30cm), and the attribute field beginning with S_ indicates the lower soil attribute (30-100cm). For the meaning of specific attribute values, please refer to the documentation * .pdf and database * .mdb in the folder.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations（FAO）, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
This data set comprises the plateau soil moisture and soil temperature observational data based on the Tibetan Plateau, and it is used to quantify the uncertainty of model products of coarse-resolution satellites, soil moisture and soil temperature. The observation data of soil temperature and moisture on the Tibetan Plateau (Tibet-Obs) are from in situ reference networks at four regional scales, which are the Nagqu network of cold and semiarid climate, the Maqu network of cold and humid climate, and the Ali network of cold and arid climate，and Pali network. These networks provided representative coverage of different climates and surface hydrometeorological conditions on the Tibetan Plateau. - Temporal resolution: 1hour - Spatial resolution: point measurement - Measurement accuracy: soil moisture, 0.00001; soil temperature, 0.1 °C; data set size: soil moisture and temperature measurements at nominal depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 - Unit: soil moisture, cm ^ 3 cm ^ -3; soil temperature, °C
BOB Su, YANG Kun
Contact SupportNorthwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS 0931-4967287 email@example.com
LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center