The Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys ice velocity product is based on the Antarctic Ice Sheet Velocity and Mapping Project (AIV) data product, which is post-processed with advanced algorithms and numerical tools. The product is mapped using Sentinel-1/2/Landsat data and provides uniform, high-resolution (60m) ice velocity results for McMurdo Dry Valleys, covering the period from 2015 to 2020.
JIANG Liming JIANG Liming JIANG Liming
Based on the data of GF-1 and GF-2 in China, the freeze-thaw disaster distribution data of Qinghai Tibet project corridor is produced by using the deep learning classification method and manual visual interpretation and correction. The geographical range of the data is 40km along the Xidatan Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway. The data include the distribution data of thermokast lakes and the distribution data of thermal melting landslides. The dataset can provide data basis for the research of freeze-thaw disaster and engineering disaster prevention and reduction in Qinghai Tibet engineering corridor. The spatial distribution of freezing and thawing disasters within 40km along the Xidatan-Anduo section of Qinghai Tibet highway is self-made based on the domestic GF-2 image data. Firstly, the deep learning method is used to extract the mud flow terrace block from GF-2 data; Then, ArcGIS is used for manual editing.
NIU Fujun, LUO Jing LUO Jing
Pine Island Glacier, Swett Glacier, etc. are distributed in the basins of the Antarctic Ice Sheet 21 and 22, which is one of the areas with the most severe melting in the Southwest Antarctica. This dataset first uses Cryosat-2 data (August 2010 to October 2018) to establish a plane equation in each regular grid, taking into account terrain items, seasonal fluctuations, backscattering coefficients, wave front width, lifting rails and other factors, and calculates the elevation change of ice cover surface in the grid through least square regression. In addition, we used ICESat-2 data (October 2018 to December 2020) to calculate the surface elevation change during the two periods by obtaining the elevation difference at the intersection of satellite lifting orbits in each regular grid. The spatial resolution of surface elevation change data in two periods is 5km × 5km, the file format is GeoTIFF, the projection coordinate is polar stereo projection (EPSG 3031), and it is named by the name of the satellite altimetry data used. The data can be opened using ArcMap, QGIS and other software. The results show that the average elevation change rate of the region from 2010 to 2018 is -0.34 ± 0.08m/yr, which belongs to the area with severe melting. The annual average elevation change rate from October 2018 to November 2020 is -0.38 ± 0.06m/yr, which is in an intensified state compared with CryoSat-2 calculation results.
YANG Bojin , HUANG Huabing , LIANG Shuang , LI Xinwu
This data set includes five periods of lake transparency data, including 1995, 2002, 2005, 2010 and 2015. The data sources are: Landsat 5, Landsat 7 and Landsat 8. Method of use: It is convenient to measure the spectral reflectance. On the basis of analyzing the relationship between the spectral reflectance and the transparency measured synchronously, the semi empirical method is used to select the best band combination, establish the transparency algorithm of Qinghai Tibet Plateau lakes, and obtain the water transparency. The verification of measured points shows that the relative error of water transparency estimation is 35%.
We propose an algorithm for ice fissure identification and detection using u-net network, which can realize the automatic detection of ice fissures of Typical Glaciers in Greenland ice sheet. Based on the data of sentinel-1 IW from July and August every year, in order to suppress the speckle noise of SAR image, the probabilistic patch based weights (ppb) algorithm is selected for filtering, and then the representative samples are selected and input into the u-net network for model training, and the ice cracks are predicted according to the trained model. Taking two typical glaciers in Greenland (Jakobshavn and Kangerdlussuaq) as examples, the average accuracy of classification results can reach 94.5%, of which the local accuracy of fissure area can reach 78.6%, and the recall rate is 89.4%.
LI Xinwu , LIANG Shuang , YANG Bojin , ZHAO Jingjing
We propose an algorithm for ice crack identification and detection using u-net network, which can realize the automatic detection of Antarctic ice cracks. Based on the data of sentinel-1 EW from January to February every year, in order to suppress the speckle noise of SAR image, the probabilistic patch based weights (ppb) algorithm is selected for filtering, and then representative samples are selected and input into the u-net network for model training, and the ice cracks are predicted according to the trained model. Taking five typical ice shelves（Amery、Fimbul、Nickerson、Shackleton、Thwaiters) in Antarctica as an example, the average accuracy of classification results can reach 94.5%, of which the local accuracy of fissure area can reach 78.6%, and the recall rate is 89.4%.
LI Xinwu , LIANG Shuang , YANG Bojin , ZHAO Jingjing
Global solar radiation and diffuse horizontal solar radiation at Dome C (Antarctica) are measured by radiation sensors (pyranometers CM22, Kipp & Zonen Inc., The Netherlands), and water vapor pressure (hPa) at the ground are obtained from the IPEV/PNRA Project “Routine Meteorological Observation at Station Concordia”, http://www.climantartide.it. This dataset includes hourly solar radiation and its absorbing and scattering losses caused by the absorbing and scattering atmospheric substances (MJ m-2, 200-3600 nm), and the albedos at the top of the atmosphere and the surface. The above solar radiations are calculated by using an empirical model of global solar radiation (Bai, J.; Zong, X.; Lanconelli, C.; Lupi, A.; Driemel, A.; Vitale, V.; Li, K.; Song, T. 2022. Long-Term Variations of Global Solar Radiation and Its Potential Effects at Dome C (Antarctica). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19, 3084. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053084). The observed global solar radiation and meteorological parameters are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.935421. The data set can be used to study solar radiation and its attenuation at Dome C, Antarctica.
Global solar radiation at Qomolangma station (The Tibetan Plateau) is measured by radiation sensor (pyranometers CM22, Kipp & Zonen Inc., The Netherlands), and water vapor pressure (hPa) at the ground is measured by HMP45C-GM (Vaisala Inc., Vantaa, Finland). This dataset includes hourly solar radiation and its absorbing and scattering losses caused by the absorbing and scattering atmospheric substances (MJ m-2, 200-3600 nm), and the albedos at the top of the atmosphere and the surface. The above solar radiations are calculated by using an empirical model of global solar radiation (Bai, J.; Zong, X.; Ma, Y.; Wang, B.; Zhao, C.; Yang, Y.; Guang, J.; Cong, Z.; Li, K.; Song, T. 2022. Long-Term Variations in Global Solar Radiation and Its Interaction with Atmospheric Substances at Qomolangma. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19, 8906. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19158906). The observed global solar radiation and meteorological variables are available at https://data.tpdc.ac.cn/zh-hans/data/b9ab35b2-81fb-4330-925f-4d9860ac47c3/. The data set can be used to study solar radiation and its attenuation at Qomolangma region.
The fractional snow cover (FSC) is the ratio of snow cover area (SCA) to unit pixel area. The data set is made by bv-blrm snow area proportional linear regression empirical model; The source data used are mod09ga 500m global daily surface reflectance products and mod09a1 500m 8-day synthetic global surface reflectance products; The production platform uses Google Earth engine; The data range is global, the data preparation time is from 2000 to 2021, the spatial resolution is 500 meters, and the temporal resolution is year by year. This set of data can provide quantitative information of snow cover distribution for regional climate simulation and hydrological models.
Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) refers to the percentage of the vertical projected area of vegetation to the total area of the study area. It is an important indicator to measure the effectiveness of ecological protection and ecological restoration. It is widely used in the fields of climate, ecology, soil erosion and so on. FVC is not only an ideal parameter to reflect the productivity of vegetation, but also can play a good role in evaluating topographic differences, climate change and regional ecological environment quality. This research work is mainly to post process two sets of glass FVC data, and give a more reliable vegetation coverage of the circumpolar Arctic Circle (north of 66 ° n) and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (north of 26 ° n to 39.85 °, east longitude 73.45 ° to 104.65 °) in 2013 and 2018 through data fusion, elimination of outliers and clipping.
NDVI reflects the background effects of plant canopy, such as soil, wet ground, snow, dead leaves, roughness, etc., and is related to vegetation cover. It is one of the important parameters to reflect the crop growth and nutrient information. According to this parameter, the N demand of crops in different seasons can be known, which is an important guide to the reasonable application of N fertilizer. Correct NDVI (C-NDVI) is the value of NDVI after excluding the influence of climate elements (temperature, precipitation, etc.) on NDVI. Taking precipitation as an example, studies on the lag effect of precipitation on vegetation growth show that the lag time of precipitation effects varies in different regions due to differences in vegetation composition and soil types. In this study, we post-processed the MODIS NDVI data and firstly correlated the NDVI value of the current month with the precipitation of the current month, the average value of the precipitation of the current month with that of the previous month, and the average value of the precipitation of the current month with that of the previous two months to determine the optimal lag time. The NDVI was regressed on precipitation and air temperature to obtain the correlation coefficients, and then the corrected NDVI values were calculated by the difference between the MODIS NDVI and the NDVI regressed on climate factors. We corrected NDVI using climate data to give reliable vegetation correction indices for the circum-Arctic Circle (range north of 66°N) and the Tibetan Plateau (range 26°N to 39.85°N and 73.45°E to 104.65°E) for 2013 and 2018. The spatial resolution of the data is 0.5 degrees and the temporal resolution is monthly values.
This dataset consists of four files including (1) Lake ice thickness of 16 large lakes measured by satellite altimeters for 1992-2019 (Altimetric LIT for 16 large lakes.xlsx); (2) Daily lake ice thickness and lake surface snow depth of 1,313 lakes with an area > 50 km2 in the Northern Hemisphere modeled by a one-dimensional remote sensing lake ice model for 2003-2018 (in NetCDF format); (3) Future lake ice thickness and surface snow depth for 2071-2099 modeled by the lake ice model with a modified ice growth module (table S1.xlsx); (4) A lookup table containing lake IDs, names, locations, and areas. This daily lake ice and snow thickness dataset could provide a benchmark for the estimation of global lake ice and snow mass, thereby improving our understanding of the ecological and economical significance of freshwater ice as well as its response to climate change.
LI Xingdong, LONG Di, HUANG Qi, ZHAO Fanyu
Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) known as Asia's water tower plays a critical role in regional water and energy cycles, largely affecting water availability for downstream countries. Rain gauges are indispensable in precipitation measurement, but are quite limited in the TP that features complex terrain and the harsh environment. Satellite and reanalysis precipitation products can provide complementary information for ground-based measurements, particularly over large poorly gauged areas. Here we optimally merged gauge, satellite, and reanalysis data by determining weights of various data sources using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and environmental variables including elevation, surface pressure, and wind speed. A Multi-Source Precipitation (MSP) data set was generated at a daily timescale and a spatial resolution of 0.1° across the TP for the 1998‒2017 period. The correlation coefficient (CC) of daily precipitation between the MSP and gauge observations was highest (0.74) and the root mean squared error was the second lowest compared with four other satellite products, indicating the quality of the MSP and the effectiveness of the data merging approach. We further evaluated the hydrological utility of different precipitation products using a distributed hydrological model for the poorly gauged headwaters of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers in the TP. The MSP achieved the best Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (over 0.8) and CC (over 0.9) for daily streamflow simulations during 2004‒2014. In addition, the MSP performed best over the ungauged western TP based on multiple collocation evaluation. The merging method could be applicable to other data-scarce regions globally to provide high quality precipitation data for hydrological research. The latitude and longitude of the left bottom corner across the TP, the number of rows and columns, and grid cells information are all included in each ASCII file.
HONG Zhongkun , LONG Di
Aiming at the 179000 km2 area of the pan three rivers parallel flow area of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, InSAR deformation observation is carried out through three kinds of SAR data: sentinel-1 lifting orbit and palsar-1 lifting orbit. According to the obtained InSAR deformation image, it is comprehensively interpreted in combination with geomorphic and optical image features. A total of 949 active landslides below 4000m above sea level were identified. It should be noted that due to the difference of observation angle, sensitivity and observation phase of different SAR data, there are some differences in the interpretation of the same landslide with different data. The scope and boundary of the landslide need to be corrected with the help of ground and optical images. The concept of landslide InSAR recognition scale is different from the traditional spatial resolution and mainly depends on the deformation intensity. Therefore, some landslides with small scale but prominent deformation characteristics and strong integrity compared with the background can also be interpreted (with SAR intensity map, topographic shadow map and optical remote sensing image as ground object reference). The minimum interpretation area can reach several pixels. For example, a highway slope landslide with only 4 pixels is interpreted with reference to the highway along the Nujiang River.
This data is a high-resolution soil freeze/thaw (F/T) dataset in the Qinghai Tibet Engineering Corridor (QTEC) produced by fusing sentinel-1 SAR data, AMSR-2 microwave radiometer data, and MODIS LST products. Based on the newly proposed algorithm, this product provides the detection results of soil F/T state with a spatial resolution of 100 m on a monthly scale. Both meteorological stations and soil temperature stations were used for results evaluation. Based on the ground surface temperature data of four meteorological stations provided by the national meteorological network, the overall accuracy of soil F/T detection products achieved 84.63% and 77.09% for ascending and descending orbits, respectively. Based on the in-situ measured 5 cm soil temperature data near Naqu, the average overall accuracy of ascending and descending orbits are 78.58% and 76.66%. This high spatial resolution F/T product makes up traditional coarse resolution soil F/T products and provides the possibility of high-resolution soil F/T monitoring in the QTEC.
ZHOU Xin , LIU Xiuguo , ZHOU Junxiong , ZHANG Zhengjia , CHEN Qihao , XIE Qinghua
Soil moisture is an important boundary condition of earth-atmosphere exchanges, and it has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. Vegetation optical depth is a physical variable to measure the attenuation of vegetation in microwave radiative transfer model, and it has been proved to be a good indicator of vegetation water content and biomass. This dataset uses the multi-channel collaborative algorithm (MCCA) to retrieve both soil moisture and polarized vegetation optical depth with SMAP brightness temperature. The algorithm uses a self-constraint relationship between land parameters and an analytical relationship between brightness temperature at different channels to perform the retrieval process. The MCCA does not depend on other auxiliary data on vegetation properties and can be applied to a variety of satellites. The soil moisture product from this dataset includes the soil moisture content in the unfrozen period and the liquid water content in the frozen period. Both horizontal- and vertical-polarization vegetation optical depth are retrieved. So far as we know, it is the first polarization-dependent vegetation optical depth product at L-band. This dataset was validated by 19 dense soil moisture observation networks (9 core validation sites used by SMAP team and 13 sites not used by them), and the widely used soil climate analysis network (SCAN). It was found that ubRMSE (unbiased root mean square error) of MCCA retrieved soil moisture is generally smaller than that of other SMAP products.
ZHAO Tianjie, PENG Zhiqing , YAO Panpan, SHI Jiancheng
Based on long-term series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover products, daily snow cover products without data gaps at 500 m spatial resolution over the Tibetan Plateau from 2002 to 2021 were generated by employing a Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) modeling technique. This HMRF framework optimally integrates spectral, spatiotemporal, and environmental information together, which not only fills data gaps caused by frequent clouds, but also improves the accuracy of the original MODIS snow cover products. In particular, this technology incorporates solar radiation as an environmental contextual information to improve the accuracy of snow identification in mountainous areas. Validation with in situ observations and snow cover derived from Landsat-8 OLI images revealed that these new snow cover products achieved an accuracy of 98.31% and 92.44%, respectively. Specifically, the accuracy of the new snow products is higher during the snow transition period and in complex terrains with higher elevations as well as sunny slopes. These gap-free snow cover products effectively improve the spatiotemporal continuity and the low accuracy in complex terrains of the original MODIS snow products, and is thus the basis for the study of climate change and hydrological cycling in the TP.
HUANG Yan , XU Jianghui
This data set is a code file set of TCA (triple collision analysis) algorithm, which is used to generate the global daily-scale soil moisture fusion dataset from 2011 to 2018.
XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, XIE Qiuxia, JIA Li , HU Guangcheng
The vegetation type map was created by the random forest (RF) classification approach, based on 319 ground-truth samples, combined with a set of input variables derived from the visible, infrared, and thermal Landsat-8 images. According to vegetation characteristics, four types include alpine swamp meadow (ASM), alpine meadow (AM), alpine steppe (AS), and alpine desert (AD) were classified in this map. Based on a spatial resolution of 30 m, the map can provide more detailed vegetation information.
ZHOU Defu, ZOU Defu, ZOU Defu, Zhao Lin, ZHAO Lin, Liu Guangyue, LIU Guangyue, Du Erji, DU Erji, LI Zhibin , LI Zhibin, Wu Tonghua, WU Xiaodong, CHEN Jie CHEN Jie
This data is the land cover data at 30m resolution of Southeast Asia in 2015. The data format of the data is NetCDF, and the variable name is "land cover type". The data was obtained by mosaicing and extracting the From-GLC data. Several land cover types, such as snow and ice that do not exist in Southeast Asia were eliminated.The legend were reintegrated to match the new data. The data provide information of 8 land cover types: cropland, forest, grassland, shrub, wetland, water, city and bare land. The overall accuracy of the data is 71% (Gong et al., 2019). The data can provide the land cover information of Southeast Asia for hydrological models and regional climate models.
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