This data uses a landslide hazard risk assessment model consisting of four modules: landslide hazard causative factors, landslide susceptibility model, exposed population and population casualty rate. The module of hazard-causing factors includes DEM, slope, rainfall, temperature, snow cover, GDP, and vegetation cover factors. The landslide hazard susceptibility model is a statistical analysis using a logistic regression model to obtain landslide susceptibility probability values. The population exposure module uses the landslide susceptibility values overlaid with population data. The population casualty rate module is based on the ratio of historical landslide casualties to the population exposed to landslides during the same period. Finally, by substituting the 2020 population data, the exposed population under different levels of landslide hazard susceptibility is calculated and multiplied with the historical period landslide hazard population casualty rate to assessIntegrated multi-hazard population risk in the peri-Himalayan and Asian water tower regions
The data set records the main distribution of sudden geological disasters in Qinghai Province from 2011 to 2018. The data are collected from the Department of ecological environment of Qinghai Province. The data set contains seven tables, which are: the main distribution of sudden geological disasters in 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2016 Distribution statistics table, 2017 Qinghai Province sudden geological disasters distribution table, 2018 Qinghai Province sudden geological disasters distribution table, the data table structure is the same. Each data table has five fields, such as the statistical table of the main distribution of sudden geological disasters in Qinghai Province in 2016 Field 1: county (city) Field 2: landslide Field 3: collapse Field 4: debris flow Field 5: loess collapsibility
Department of Ecology and Environment of Qinghai Province
This data set contains the statistical information of natural disasters in Qinghai Tibet Plateau in the past 50 years (1950-2002), including drought, snow disaster, frost disaster, hail, flood, wind disaster, lightning disaster, cold wave and strong cooling, low temperature and freezing damage, gale sandstorm, insect disaster, rodent damage and other meteorological disasters. Qinghai and Tibet are the main parts of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The Qinghai Tibet Plateau is one of the Centers for the formation and evolution of biological species in China. It is also a sensitive area and fragile zone for the international scientific and technological circles to study climate and ecological environment changes. Its complex terrain conditions, high altitude and severe climate conditions determine that the ecological environment is very fragile, It has become the most frequent area of natural disasters in China. The data were extracted from "China Meteorological Disaster Canon · Qinghai volume" and "China Meteorological Disaster Canon · Tibet Volume", which were manually input, summarized and proofread.
Statistical Bureau Statistical Bureau
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable for high temperature and drought monitoring and climate and ecological environment research. Due to the sparse distribution of ground observation stations, thermal infrared remote sensing technology has become an important means of quickly obtaining ground temperature over large areas. However, there are many missing and low-quality values in satellite-based LST data because clouds cover more than 60% of the global surface every day. This article presents a unique LST dataset with a monthly temporal resolution for China from 2003 to 2017 that makes full use of the advantages of MODIS data and meteorological station data to overcome the defects of cloud influence via a reconstruction model. We specifically describe the reconstruction model, which uses a combination of MODIS daily data, monthly data and meteorological station data to reconstruct the LST in areas with cloud coverage and for grid cells with elevated LST error, and the data performance is then further improved by establishing a regression analysis model. The validation indicates that the new LST dataset is highly consistent with in situ observations. For the six natural subregions with different climatic conditions in China, verification using ground observation data shows that the root mean square error (RMSE) ranges from 1.24 to 1.58 K, the mean absolute error (MAE) varies from 1.23 to 1.37 K and the Pearson coefficient (R2) ranges from 0.93 to 0.99. The new dataset adequately captures the spatiotemporal variations in LST at annual, seasonal and monthly scales. From 2003 to 2017, the overall annual mean LST in China showed a weak increase. Moreover, the positive trend was remarkably unevenly distributed across China. The most significant warming occurred in the central and western areas of the Inner Mongolia Plateau in the Northwest Region, and the average annual temperature change is greater than 0.1K (R>0:71, P<0:05), and a strong negative trend was observed in some parts of the Northeast Region and South China Region. Seasonally, there was significant warming in western China in winter, which was most pronounced in December. The reconstructed dataset exhibits significant improvements and can be used for the spatiotemporal evaluation of LST in high-temperature and drought-monitoring studies. More detail please refer to Zhao et al (2020). doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3528024
The Land Surface Temperature in China dataset contains land surface temperature data for China (about 9.6 million square kilometers of land) during the period of 2003-2017, in Celsius, in monthly temporal and 5600 m spatial resolution. It is produced by combing MODIS daily data(MOD11C1 and MYD11C1), monthly data(MOD11C3 and MYD11C3) and meteorological station data to reconstruct real LST under cloud coverage in monthly LST images, and then a regression analysis model is constructed to further improve accuracy in six natural subregions with different climatic conditions.
We compiled the Seismic Zonation Map of Western Asia using the ArcGIS platform through data collecting and digitization. The Seismic Zonation map of Western Asia covers Iran and its surrounding countries and regions. Based on the “Major active faults of Iran” map, the map is replenished with massive published data and depicts the location and nature of the seisogenic faults or active faults and the epicenter of earthquakes with M ≥ 5 from 1960 to 2019. The zonation map shows the mean values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) with 10% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. The two maps can not only be used in the research of active faults and seismic risks in Western Asia, but also will be applied to the seismic safety evaluation for infrastructure construction.
A gridded ocean temperature dataset with complete global ocean coverage is a highly valuable resource for the understanding of climate change and climate variability. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) provides a new objective analysis of historical ocean subsurface temperature since 1990 for the upper 2000m through several innovative steps. The first was to use an updated set of past observations that had been newly corrected for biases (e.g., in XBTs). The XBT bias was corrected by CH14 scheme, which is recommended by the XBT community. The second was to use co-variability between values at different places in the ocean and background information from a number of climate models that included a comprehensive ocean model. The third was to extend the influence of each observation over larger areas, recognizing the relative homogeneity of the vast open expanses of the southern oceans. Then the observations were also used to provide finer scale detail. Finally, the new analysis was carefully evaluated by using the knowledge of recent well-observed ocean states, but subsampled using the sparse distribution of observations in the more distant past to show that the method produces unbiased historical reconstruction. The ocean wind data set is constructed using RSS Version-7 microwave radiometer wind speed data. The input microwave data are processed by Remote Sensing Systems with funding from the NASA MEaSUREs Program and from the NASA Earth Science Physical Oceanography Program. This wind speed product is intended for climate study as the input data have been carefully intercalibrated and consistently processed. Each netCDF file contains: 1) monthly means of wind speed, grid size 360x180xnumber of all months since Jan 1988(increases over time) 2) a 12-month set of climatology wind speed, grid size 360x180, the climatology is an average calculated over the 20-year period 1988-2007 3) monthly anomalies of wind speed derived by subtracting the above climatology maps from the monthly means, grid size 360x180x#months since Jan 1988 (increases over time) 4) a wind speed trend map, grid size 360x180, the trend is calculated from 1988-01-01 to the latest complete calendar year 5) a time-latitude plot (a minimum of 10% of latitude cells is required for valid data), grid size 180x#months since Jan 1988 (increases over time).
GE Yong, LI Qiangzi, DONG Wen
Water scarcity，food crises and ecological deterioration caused by drought disasters are a direct threat to food security and socio-economic development. Improvement of drought disaster risk assessment and emergency management is now urgently required. This article describes major scientific and technological progress in the field of drought disaster risk assessment. Drought is a worldwide natural disaster that has long affected agricultural production as well as social and economic activities. Frequent droughts have been observed in the Belt and Road area, in which much of the agricultural land is concentrated in fragile ecological environment. Soil relative humidity index is one of the indicators to characterize soil drought and can directly reflect the status of crops' available water.
GE Yong, WU Hua
The UHSLC offers tide gauge data with two levels of quality-control (QC). Fast Delivery (FD) data are released within 1-2 months of data collection and receive only basic QC focused on large level shifts and obvious outliers. The GLOSS/CLIVAR (formerly known as the WOCE) "fast" sea level data is distributed as hourly, daily, and monthly values. This project is supported by the NOAA Climate and Global Change program, and is one of the activities of the University of Hawaii Sea Level Center. Each file is given a name "h###.dat" where "h" denotes hourly sea level data and "###" denotes the station number. A file exists for every station with hourly data. The UHSLC datasets are GLOSS data streams (read more here). There are many tide gauge records in the UHSLC database, but the backbone is the GLOSS Core Network (GCN) – a global set of ~300 tide gauge stations that serve as the foundation of the global in situ sea level network. The network is designed to provide evenly distributed sampling of global coastal sea level variation at a variety of time-scales.
DONG Wen, University of hawaii sealevel center （UHSLC）
Water scarcity，food crises and ecological deterioration caused by drought disasters are a direct threat to food security and socio-economic development. Improvement of drought disaster risk assessment and emergency management is now urgently required. This article describes major scientific and technological progress in the field of drought disaster risk assessment. Drought is a worldwide natural disaster that has long affected agricultural production as well as social and economic activities. Frequent droughts have been observed in the Belt and Road area, in which much of the agricultural land is concentrated in fragile ecological environment. The relative moisture index is the difference between the precipitation in a certain period of time and the potential evapotranspiration in the same period and then divided by the potential evapotranspiration in the same period.The precipitation data comes from the downscaling of the TRMM/GPM satellite precipitation data, and the potential evapotranspiration is estimated using the Thornthwaite method. For detailed algorithm, please refer to "National Standard for Meteorological Drought of China" (GB/T 20481-2017). The data only covers 34 key node areas along the Belt and Road.
The global typhoon path data set contains the data of 29 typhoon path points in the Northwest Pacific in 2018, including time, longitude and latitude, central air pressure, wind speed and wind force, future direction, future speed, wind force level and other indicators; the data comes from the typhoon network of the Central Meteorological Station (http://typhone.nmc.cn/web.html), using Python to grab the typhoon path data published on the web page, In addition, the captured Excel data table is sorted into ShapeFile form, and each path point is given wind power level according to the wind power rating standard of typhoon; It can be applied to the analysis of the characteristics and influence of the movement of typhoon path points, wind speed and wind force.
CHEN Yiting, YANG Hua, WU Jianjun, ZHOU Hongmin
1)The data content includes three stages of soil erosion intensity in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 1992, 2005 and 2015, and the grid resolution is 300m. 2) China soil erosion prediction model (CSLE) was used to calculate the soil erosion amount of more than 4,000 investigation units on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Soil erosion was interpolated according to land use on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. According to the soil erosion classification standard, the soil erosion intensity map of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was obtained. 3) By comparing the differences of three-stage soil erosion intensity data, it conforms to the actual change law and the data quality is good. 4) The data of soil erosion intensity are of great significance to the study of soil erosion in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the sustainable development of local ecosystems. In the attribute table, "Value" represents the erosion intensity level, from 1 to 6, the value represents slight, mild, moderate, intense, extremely intense and severe. "BL" represents the percentage of echa erosion intensity in the total area.
"Disaster data for countries along the belt and road, mainly from the global disaster database.The records information of disaster database are from the United Nations, government and non-governmental organizations, research institutions and the media. It's documented in detail such as the country where the disaster occurred, the type of disaster, the date of the disaster, the number of deaths and the estimated economic losses. This study extracts the natural disaster records of the countries along the One Belt And One Road line one by one from the database, and finally forms the disaster database of 9 major disasters of the 65 countries. The natural disaster records collected can be roughly divided into nine categories, including: floods, landslides, extreme temperatures, storms, droughts, forest fires, earthquakes, mass movements and volcanic activities. From 1900 to 2018, a total of 5,479 disaster records were recorded in countries along the One Belt And One Road. From 2000 to 2015, there were 2,673 disaster records. On this basis, the natural disasters of the countries along the belt and road are investigated from four aspects, including disaster frequency, death toll, disaster-affected population and economic loss assessment. Overall, since 1900, a total of 5479 natural disasters have occurred in countries along the One Belt And One Road, resulting in about 19 million deaths and economic losses of about 950 billion us dollars. Among them, the most frequent occurrence is flood and storm; the biggest economic losses are floods and earthquakes; the most affected people are flood and drought; drought and flooding are the leading causes of death
This data set contains information on natural disasters in Qinghai over nearly 50 years, including the times, places and the consequences of natural disasters such as droughts, floods, hail, continuous rain, snow disasters, cold waves and strong temperature drops, low temperature freezing injuries, gales and sandstorms, pest plagues, rats, and geological disasters. Qinghai Province is located in the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau and has a total area of 720,000 square kilometers. Numerous rivers, glaciers and lakes lie in the province. Because two mother rivers of the Chinese nation, the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, and the famous international river—the Lancang River—originated here, it is known as the "Chinese Water Tower"; there are 335,000 square meters of available grasslands in the province, and the natural pasture area ranks fourth in the country after those of Inner Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang. There are various types of grasslands, abundant grassland resources, and 113 families, 564 genera and 2100 species of vascular plants, which grow and develop under the unique climatic condition of the Tibetan Plateau and strongly represent the characteristics of the plateau ecological environment. As the main part of the Tibetan Plateau, Qinghai Province is one of the centers of the formation and evolution of biological species in China. It is also a sensitive area and fragile zone for the study of climate and ecological environment in the international field of sciences and technology. The terrain and land-forms in Qinghai are complex, with interlaced mountains, valleys and basins, widely distributed snow and glaciers, the Gobi and other deserts and grassland. Complex terrain conditions, high altitudes and harsh climatic conditions make Qinghai a province with frequent meteorological disasters. The main meteorological disasters include droughts, floods, hail, continuous rain, snow disasters, cold waves and strong temperature drops, low temperature freezing injuries, gales and sandstorms. The data are extracted from the Qinghai Volume of Chinese Meteorological Disaster Dictionary, with manual entry, summarizing and proofreading.
Qinghai Provincial Bureau of Statistics
The Pan-Third Polar region has strong seismic activity, which is driven by the subduction and collision of the Indian plate, the Arab plate and the Eurasian plate. 3809 earthquakes with Magnitude 6 or larger have occurred in Pan-Third Polar region (north latitude 0-56 degrees and east longitude 43-139 degrees) since 1960. Among them, 59 earthquakes with Magnitude 8 or larger, 689 earthquakes with Magnitude 7.0-7.9 and 3061 earthquakes with Magnitude 6.0-6.9 have occurred. Earthquakes occurred mainly in the foothills of the India-Myanmar Mountains, the Himalaya Mountains, the Sulaiman Mountains, where the India Plate collided with the Eurasian plate, and the Zagros Mountains where the Arab plate collided with the Eurasian plate.
The sand drift potential data sets of Central Asia in 2017 is in tif format. It covers five countries in Central Asia, including Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The sand drift potential is absolutely drift potential, that is, the sum of the flux in all directions, regardless of the direction of the potential. The data was obtained by GLDAS global three-hour assimilation data extraction calculation. The temporal resolution is month, the spatial resolution is 0.25°, and the time range is 2017. This data set can be used as an important reference data for sand storm disaster assessment.
The research project on the function and mechanism of sand-fixing afforestation of waste lignin from straw pulp and paper making belongs to the national natural science foundation of China "environment and ecological science in western China" major research program, led by wang hanjie, a researcher of the institute of aviation meteorology and chemical protection, air force equipment research institute. The project ran from January 2004 to December 2006 Remittance data of the project: 1. 2005-08-10 - sand lake - jinsha wan test site image (JPG) 2.2006 field picture of fixed sand test (JPG) 3. Meteorological data of ningxia jinshawan meteorological station (TXT text) Observation data including dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20cm ground temperature, evaporation and air temperature were observed at 8:00,14:00 and 20:00 on August 13, 2005 4. Growth data of jinshawan community in ningxia (TXT text) The data of crown diameter and height of four samples are included. 5. Soil water data of jinshawan, ningxia (excel) Soil moisture data of 16 samples at depths of 20CM and 12CM in clear water control area and lignin spraying area by 2 hours in the daytime on August 19, 2005. 6. Soil water data of shahu lake in ningxia (excel) On August 10,11, 2005, soil moisture data of various depths of 10CM,12CM and 20CM were obtained 7. Plant growth data of sand fixation community in shahu, ningxia (excel) Plant growth statistics of 5 sample plots: species name,x,y, base, crown, height, number of plants.
This data is digitized from the `` Map of Desertification Types of Naiman Banner, Kulun Banner, and Horqin Left-wing Rear Banner '' on the drawing.The specific information of this map is as follows: * Chief Editor: Zhu Zhenda * Deputy editors: Liu Shu and Qiu Xingmin * Edit: Feng Yukun * Mapping: Feng Yudi, Zhao Yanhua, Wang Jianhua * Double photo: Li Weimin * Field trip: Zhu Zhenda, Qiu Xingmin, Liu Shu, Shen Jingqi, Feng Yudi, Wang Yimou, Yang Youlin, Yang Taiyun, Wen Zixiang, Liu Yangxuan * Mapping unit: Prepared by Desert Research Office, Chinese Academy of Sciences * Publisher: No * Scale: 1: 300000 * Publication time: No * Legend: undulating undulating sandy loess plain, non-desertified land, grassland, saline-alkali land, woods and shrubs, arable land, mountains, sand dunes File format and naming The data is stored in ESRI Shapefile format, including the following layers: Naiman Banner, Kubian Banner, Kezuohou Banner Desertification Type Map, River, Road, Lake, Railway, Well Spring, Residential Area Data attributes Desertification Grade Vegetation Background Desertified land under development Saline-alkali land Heavily desertified land Woods and shrubs Mountain Strongly developed desertified land Potentially desertified land Lake Non-desertified land Undulating sandy loess plain 2. Projection information: Angular Unit: Degree (0.017453292519943295) Prime Meridian: Greenwich (0.000000000000000000) Datum: D_Beijing_1954 Spheroid: Krasovsky_1940 Semimajor Axis: 6378245.000000000000000000 Semiminor Axis: 6356863.018773047300000000 Inverse Flattening: 298.300000000000010000
WANG Jianhua, ZHU Zhenda
The data is digitized from a drawing, the map of developmental degree of desertification in Daqinggou, Keerqin (HORQIN) Steppe (1981). The specific information of this map is as follows: * Chief Editor: Zhu Zhenda * Editor: Feng Yusun * Drawer: Feng Yusun, Yao Fafen, Wang Jianhua, Zhao Yanhua, Li Weimin * Mapping unit: Prepared by Desert Research Office, Chinese Academy of Sciences * Publisher: No * Scale: 1: 50000 * Publication time: No * Legend: Gully Dense Forest, Sparse Woods, Brush, Artificial Woodland, Nursery and Vegetable Garden, Grass Land, Dry Farmland (Dry Farmland), Rejected Farmland, Marsh Land, Shifting Snad-Dunes, Semi-Shifting Sand-Dunes, Semi-Fixed Sand-Dunes ), Fixed Sand-Dunes, Water Area, Rice, Residential, Highway 1. File format and naming The data is stored in ESRI Shapefile format, including the following layers: Desertification map of Daqinggou area in Horqin steppe, rivers, swamps, roads, lakes, residential areas 2. Data desertification attribute fields: Type of desertification (Shape), Grassland (Grassland), Woodland (Woodland), Woodland Density (W_density), Farmland (Farmland) 3. Projection information: Angular Unit: Degree (0.017453292519943295) Prime Meridian: Greenwich (0.000000000000000000) Datum: D_Beijing_1954 Spheroid: Krasovsky_1940 Semimajor Axis: 6378245.000000000000000000 Semiminor Axis: 6356863.018773047300000000 Inverse Flattening: 298.300000000000010000
WANG Jianhua, ZHU Zhenda, YAO Fafen, FENG Yusun
The data is digitized from a drawing, the map of developmental degree of desertification in Daqinggou, Keerqin (HORQIN) Steppe (1975). The specific information of this map is as follows: * Chief Editor: Zhu Zhenda * Editor: Feng Yusun * Drawer: Feng Yusun, Yao Fafen, Wang Jianhua, Zhao Yanhua, Li Weimin * Mapping unit: Prepared by Desert Research Office, Chinese Academy of Sciences * Publisher: No * Scale: 1: 50000 * Publication time: No * Legend: Gully Dense Forest, Sparse Woods, Brush, Artificial Woodland, Nursery and Vegetable Garden, Grass Land, Dry Farmland (Dry Farmland), Rejected Farmland, Marsh Land, Shifting Snad-Dunes, Semi-Shifting Sand-Dunes, Semi-Fixed Sand-Dunes ), Fixed Sand-Dunes, Water Area, Rice, Residential, Highway 1. File format and naming The data is stored in ESRI Shapefile format, including the following layers: Desertification map of Daqinggou area in Horqin steppe, rivers, swamps, roads, lakes, residential areas 2. Data desertification attribute fields: Type of desertification (Shape), Grassland (Grassland), Woodland (Woodland), Woodland Density (W_density), Farmland (Farmland) 3. Projection information: Angular Unit: Degree (0.017453292519943295) Prime Meridian: Greenwich (0.000000000000000000) Datum: D_Beijing_1954 Spheroid: Krasovsky_1940 Semimajor Axis: 6378245.000000000000000000 Semiminor Axis: 6356863.018773047300000000 Inverse Flattening: 298.300000000000010000
WANG Jianhua, ZHU Zhenda, FENG Yusun, YAO Fafen
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