Leaf area index (LAI), as a structural parameter of vegetation canopy, is an important input parameter for many inversion models such as energy and biomass inversion model. Firstly, vegetation points and ground points are separated in Terrasolid software. Then the transmittance of laser points is calculated, and the transmittance is the proportion of ground points to all points. After laser pulse hits the canopy, some energy passes through the voids between branches and leaves and continues to move forward until the energy is blocked, so some laser points will finally reach the ground. In this study, the ratio of the energy passing through the avoids to the energy of the canopy is used as the Laser Penetration Index (LPI). The LPI of each sample point at each scale in the study area was calculated.
The dataset includes the chlorophyll content of vegetation in different site which has different types of vegetation, acquired on 8 July, 2012, in order to validate the Chlorophyll products. Observation instruments: Sampling, Acetone extraction method Measurement methods: To analyze the influence height on chlorophyll , we select 12 different corn samples based on the height of corn. To compare the chlorophyll content of different types of vegetation, we also select 3 types of vegetation sample on the first EC tower, 1 beans sample near the seventeenth EC tower and 3 reed samples on wetland. A total of selected 19 different samples are analyzed in the laboratory in the College of Life Science, Hexi. We extract chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, the content of total chlorophyll of selected samples. Dataset contents: Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, the content of total chlorophyll Measurement time: 8 July, 2012
The dataset contains vegetation type and plant structure in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin, which was used to validate products from remote sensing. It was generated from investigating the land cover strips of CASI and SASI the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin between 25 June and 6 August in 2012. Instruments: High-precision handheld GPS (2-3 m) and digital camera were used as main tools in the survey. Measurement method: Vegetation range in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin and survey route could be decided with the help of Google Earth. Wuxing village in Xiaoman town was selected to survey detailed and other places were investigated as far to reach as possible. Main methods were to write down the longitude and latitude, phenology of the plant structure, take photos for the vegetation. Dataset contains: longitude and latitude, vegetation type, area and phenology. Observation Place: CASI flight area in artificial oasis in the middle reaches, CASI stripe flight area in the middle reaches and Zhangye district. Date: From 25 June and 6 August in 2012.
The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) mission was obtained in upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin on 1 August, 2012. PLMR is a dual-polarization (H/V) airborne microwave radiometer with a frequency of 1.413 GHz, which can provide multi-angular observations with 6 beams at ±7º, ±21.5º and ±38.5º. The PLMR spatial resolution (beam spot size) is approximately 0.3 times the altitude, and the swath width is about twice the altitude. The measurements were conducted along two transects respectively located at the west and east branches of the Babaohe River and two sampling plots in the A’rou foci experimental area. Along the transects, soil moisture was sampled at every 50 m in the west-east direction. In order to keep the ground measurements following the airborne mission as synchronous as possible in temporal, measurements were made discontinuously. In the A’rou foci experimental area, two sampling plots were identified with areas of 1.5 km × 0.6 km and 0.85 km × 0.6 km. In each plot, soil moisture was sampled at every 50 m in the west-east direction and 100 m in the north-south direction. Steven Hydro probes were used to collect soil moisture and other measurements. Concurrently with soil moisture sampling, vegetation properties were measured at some typical sampling plots. Observation items included: Soil parameters: volumetric soil moisture (inherently converted from measured soil dielectric constant), soil temperature, soil dielectric constant, soil electric conductivity. Vegetation parameters: biomass, vegetation water content, canopy height. Data and data format: This dataset includes two parts of measurements, i.e. soil and vegetation parameters. The former is as shapefile, with measured items stored in its attribute table. The measured vegetation parameters are recorded in an Excel file.
The dataset consists of three parts: part 1, survey data of plant plots from 7 tributaries of the upper Shiyan River Basin and the Qingtu Lake in the Qilian Mountains from August 16,2018 to August 30 ,2018; part 2, survey data of plant plots in the main tributaries of Heihe River and Shule River Basins from 2018.9.25 to 2018.10.3 ; part 3, survey data of plant plots in Qinghai Lake and Heihe River Basin from August 18, 2013 to August 8, 2018. The first part involves the growth characteristics and quantity information of herbs, shrubs and trees; the second part mainly investigates trees and only gives a rough estimate of herbs; the third part mainly investigates meadow vegetation. The three-part survey sets up plots based on vegetation types, and at least 3 plots (sub-trees, shrubs, and herbs) are selected for each plot. Among them, the herbaceous aspect product is 1m×1m or 0.5m×0.5m; the desert shrub-like product is 10m×10m; the forest shrub area is 2m×2m; the shrub shrub area is 4m×4m; the arbor-like aspect product is 20m. ×20m. Plant community survey in each sample: the arbor sample survey mainly investigated the number of species, species abundance, 20 arbor trees per wooden ruler (including plant height, DBH, crown width, live branch height), within the sample The diameter of all arbor; the shrub-like method mainly investigated the species number, abundance, shrub crown and shrub plant height of all shrubs; the herb sample mainly investigated the number, degree or coverage of the herbaceous species, average plant height, total coverage, Aboveground biomass.
LAI observation was carried out for the typical underlying surface in the lower reaches of Heihe River Basin during the aviation flight experiment in 2014. The observation started on 24 July, 2014 and finished on 1 August, 2014. 1. Observation time On days of 24 July, 27 July, 30 July, 31 July and 1 August, 2014 2. Samples and observation methods Large areas with homogeneous vegetation (greater than 100 m * 100 m) were chosen as the observation samples. And forty field samples were selected according to the characteristics of vegetation distribution in the downstream. The land-use types including the cantaloupe, the Tamarix chinensis, the reeds, the weeds, the Karelinia caspica, the Sophora alopecuroides and so on. LAI data were calculated according to the transmittance derived from an A value (above-canopy readings) and four B values (below readings). More than two LAI values were obtained for each sample. At the same time, the heights of the vegetation in each sample were measured. 3. Observation instrument LAI 2200 4. Data storage The observation recorded data were stored in excel and the original LAI data were stored in txt files.
This dataset is the LAI observation in the artificial oasis experimental region of the middle stream of the Heihe River Basin. The observation period is from 24 May to 20 September 2012 (UTC+8). Measurement instruments: LAI-2000 (Beijing Normal University) Measurement positions: Core Experimental Area of Flux Observation Matrix 18 corn samples, 1 orchard sample, 1 artificial white poplar sample Measurement methods: To measure the incoming sky radiation on the canopy firstly. Then the transmission sky radiation are mearued under the canopy for serveral times. The canopy LAI is retrieved by using the gap probability model.
This dataset includes 5 sub-datasets obtained from measurements in the flux observing matrix at observing site No.15 (the Daman superstation) and 13. Specifically, the sub-datasets include the following: (1) a dataset that contains atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratio measurements from site No.15 from 27 May to 21 September in 2012, (2) a dataset that contains D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at site No.15 from 27 May to 21 September 2012, (3) a dataset that contains atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios at site No.13 when airborne surveys occurred, and (4) a dataset that contains D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at sites No.13 and 15 when airborne surveys occurred, (5) a dataset that contains the ratios of evaporation and transpiration to evapotranpiration at site No.15. The experiment area was located in a corn cropland in the Daman irrigation district of Zhangye, Gansu Province, China. The positions of observing sites No.15 and 13 were 100.3722° E, 38.8555° N and 100.3785° E, 38.8607° N, respectively, with an elevation of 1552.75 m above sea level. The atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratios at site No.15 were continuously measured using an in situ observation system. The system consisted of an H218O, HDO and H2O analyzer (Model L1102-i, Picarro Inc.), a CTC HTC-Pal liquid auto sampler (LEAP Technologies) and a multichannel solenoid valve (Model EMT2SD8 MWE, Valco Instruments CO. Inc.). The heights of the two intakes were 0.5 and 1.5 m above the corn canopy. The water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratio analyzer recorded signals at 0.2 Hz; data were recorded for 2 minutes per intake. The data were block-averaged to hourly intervals. The sampling frequency of soil and xylem at site No. 15 was 1-3 days. The atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratios at site No.13 were measured using a cold traps/mass spectrometer. The sampling frequency of atmospheric water vapor, soil water and xylem water at site No.13 was the same as that of the airborne surveys. Briefly, the Picarro analyzer measurements were calibrated during every 3 h switching cycle using a two-point concentration interpolation procedure in which the water vapor mixing ratio was dynamically controlled to track the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. Possible delta stretching effects were not considered. A schematic diagram of the Picarro analyzer and its operation principles and calibration procedure are described elsewhere in the literature (Huang et al., 2014; Wen et al. 2008, 2012). The dataset of atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratios at site No.15 includes the following variables: Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), Number (available record number), δD for r1 (δD for the lower intake, ‰), δD for r2 (δD for the higher intake, ‰), δ18O for r1 (δ18O for the lower intake, ‰), δ18O for r2 (δ18O for the higher intake, ‰), vapor mixing ratio for r1 (vapor mixing ratio for the lower intake, mmol/mol), vapor mixing ratio for r2 (vapor mixing ratio for the higher intake, mmol/mol), δET_D (δD of evapotranspiration, ‰), and δET_18O (δ18O of evapotranspiration, ‰). The dataset of D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at site No.15 includes the following variables: Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), Remark (treatment: soil without mulch (Ld)=1; soil with mulch (Fm)=2; soil with male corns (F)=3; Xylem=4), δD (‰), and δ18O (‰). The dataset for the ratio of soil evaporation and transpiration to the evapotranspiration at site 15 includes the following variables: Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), E/ET (ratio of soil evaporation to the evapotranspiration, %), and T/ET (ratio of transpiration to the evapotranspiration, %). The mean (±one standard deviation) ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration was 86.7±5.2% (the range was 71.3 to 96.0%). The mean (±one standard deviation) ratio of soil evaporation to the evapotranspiration was 13.3 ±5.2% (the range was 4.0 to 28.7%). The dataset of atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratio at site No. 13 when airborne surveys occurred includes the following variables: Timestamp1 (start time, timestamp without time zone), Timetamp2 (end time, timestamp without time zone), Height (observation height, cm), δD (‰), and δ18O (‰). The dataset of D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at sites No. 13 and 15 when airborne surveys occurred include the following variables, Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), Remark (treatment: soil without mulch (Ld)=1; soil with mulch (Fm)=2; Xylem=4), δD (‰), δ18O (‰), and Location (observing site 13 or 15) . The missing measurements were replaced with -6999. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Wen et al. (2016) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
The fractional vegetation cover observation was carried out for the typical underlying surface in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin during the aviation flight experiment in 2014. The observation started on 24 July, 2014 and finished on 1 August, 2014. 1. Observation time On days of 24 July, 27 July, 30 July, 31 July and 1 August, 2014 2. Samples method Large areas with homogeneous vegetation (greater than 100 m * 100 m) were chosen as the observation samples. And forty field samples were selected according to the characteristics of vegetation distribution in the low reaches. The land-use types including the cantaloupe, the Tamarix chinensis, the reeds, the weeds, the Karelinia caspica, the Sophora alopecuroides and so on. 3. Observation methods 3.1 Instruments and measurement method Digital photography measurement is implemented to measure the FVC. Plot positions, photographic method and data processing method are dedicatedly designed. In field measurements, a long stick with the camera mounted on one end is beneficial to conveniently measure various species of vegetation, enabling a larger area to be photographed with a smaller field of view. The stick can be used to change the camera height; a ﬁxed-focus camera can be placed at the end of the instrument platform at the front end of the support bar, and the camera can be operated by remote control. 3.2 Photographic method The photographic method used depends on the species of vegetation and planting pattern. A long stick with the camera mounted on one end is used for the Tamarix chinensisi and reeds. For the Tamarix chinensisi and reeds, rows of more than two cycles should be included in the ﬁeld of view (<30), and the side length of the image should be parallel to the row. If there are no more than two complete cycles, then information regarding row spacing and plant spacing are required. The FVC of the entire cycle, that is, the FVC of the quadrat, can be obtained from the number of rows included in the field of view. For other vegetation , the photos of FVC were obtained by directly photographing for the lower heights of the vegetation. 3.3 Method for calculating the FVC The detail method of the FVC calculation can be found in the reference below. Many methods are available to extract the FVC from digital images, and the degree of automation and the precision of identification are important factors that affect the efficiency of field measurements. This method, which is proposed by the authors, has the advantages of a simple algorithm, a high degree of automation and high precision, as well as ease of operation (see the reference). 4 Data storage The observation recorded data were stored in excel and the original FVC data were stored in photos.
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