The Third pole

Brief Introduction:The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, known as the 'three poles' on the earth, has been an important area for the study of global environmental change and has played a profound role in regulating the ecology, environment and climate of the entire planet. It has always been a hot spot of concern to the international community. Under the background of global warming, the elements of the cryosphere such as the three-pole glaciers, frozen soils, and frozen-melt lakes have undergone significant changes. The glaciers are rapidly retreating and the layers of frozen soils are thickened. For a long time, China has carried out systematic and multidisciplinary research on the third pole of the world, which is dominated by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and has formed a rich research accumulation. Compared with the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China's current level of scientific research in the Arctic and Arctic regions is relatively low, especially the problems of weak research foundation, scattered research direction, and no system and low level. With the impact of climate warming...

Publish Datetime:2020-06-23

Number of Datasets:164

  • Vulnerability forecast scenarios dataset of the water resources, agriculture, and ecosystem of the Manasi River Basin (Version 1.0) (2010-2050)

    By applying Supply-demand Balance Analysis, the water resource supply and demand of the whole river basin and each county or district were calculated, on which basis the vulnerability of the water resources system of the basin was evaluated. The IPAT equation was used to set a future water resource demand scenario, setting variables such as future population growth rate, economic growth rate, and unit GDP water consumption to establish the scenario. By taking 2005 as the base year and using assorted forecasting data of population size and economic scale, the future water demand scenarios of various counties and cities from 2010 to 2050 were predicted. By applying the basic structure of the HBV conceptual hydrological model of the Swedish Hydrometeorological Institute, a model of the variation tendency of the basin under climate change was designed. The glacial melting scenario was used as the model input to construct the runoff scenario under climate change. According to the national regulations for the water resources allocation of the basin, a water distribution plan was set up to calculate the water supply comprehensively. Considering the supply and demand situation, the water resource system vulnerability was evaluated by the water shortage rate. By calculating the (grain production) land pressure index of the major counties and cities in the basin, the balance of supply and demand of land resources under the climate change, glacial melt and population growth scenarios was analyzed, and the vulnerability of the agricultural system was evaluated. The Miami formula and HANPP model were used to calculate the human appropriation of net primary biomass and primary biomass in the major counties and cities for the future, and the vulnerability of ecosystems from the perspective of supply and demand balance was assessed.

    2021-01-08 0 View Details

  • Vulnerability forecast scenarios dataset of water resources, agriculture, and ecosystem of the Urmuqi River Basin (Version 1.0) ( 2010-2050)

    By applying Supply-demand Balance Analysis, the water resource supply and demand of the whole river basin and each county or district were calculated, based on which the vulnerability of the water resources system of the basin was evaluated. The IPAT equation was used to set a future water resource demand scenario, which was to establish the scenario by setting variables such as future population growth rate, economic growth rate, and unit GDP water consumption. By taking 2005 as the base year and using assorted forecasting data of population size and economic scale, the future water demand scenarios of various counties and cities from 2010 to 2050 were predicted. By applying the basic structure of the HBV conceptual hydrological model of the Swedish Hydrometeorological Institute, a model of the variation tendency of the basin under climate change was designed. The glacial melting scenario was used as the model input to construct the runoff scenario under climate change. According to the national regulations of the water resources allocation of the basin, a water distribution plan was set up to calculate the water supply comprehensively. Considering the supply and demand situation, the water resource system vulnerability was evaluated by the water shortage rate. By calculating the (grain production) land pressure index of the major counties and cities in the basin, the balance of supply and demand of land resources under the climate change, glacial melt and population growth scenarios was analyzed, and the vulnerability of the agricultural system was evaluated. The Miami formula and HANPP model were used to calculate the human appropriation of net primary biomass and primary biomass in the major counties and cities for the future, and the vulnerability of ecosystems from the perspective of supply and demand balance was assessed.

    2021-01-08 0 View Details

  • Global river and lake vector dataset (2010)

    River and lake resources are important components for studying the Earth ecological environment, affecting global ecosystems, heat, material exchange and balance and serving as an important basis for studying changes in the global environmental mechanism. At present, the lack of global lake vector data with large-scale, high-precision, and large-range has hindered hydrological research on rivers and lakes. Taking the data collection of global rivers and lakes of Jun Chen as the source data and combining the domestic high-resolution image GF data of 2 to 3 years before and after 2010, a data set of global rivers and lakes was generated. This data set makes up for the shortcomings of low precision in some areas and is an editable lake and river vector data set with high accuracy.

    2020-12-22 0 View Details

  • Global Cryosat-2 GDR dataset (version 1.0) (2010-2016)

    The global Cryosat-2 GDR dataset is generated by the European Space Agency (ESA); it has a temporal coverage from 2010 to 2016 and covers the globe. On April 8, 2010, the ESA launched the Cryosat-2 high-tilt polar orbit satellite. The satellite is equipped with an SAR Interferometer Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), which is mainly used to monitor polar ice thickness and sea ice thickness changes, and, furthermore, to study the effects of melting polar ice on global sea level rise and that of global climate change on Antarctic ice thickness. The altimeter operates in the Ku-band and at a frequency of 13.575 GHz, it includes three measurement modes. One is a low-resolution altimeter measurement mode (LRM) that points to the subsatellite point to obtain all surface observations for land, sea, and ice sheets; its processing is similar to ENVISAT/RA-2, with an orbital resolution of 5 to 7 km. The second is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurement mode, which is mainly used to improve the accuracy and resolution of sea ice observations; it can make the resolution along the orbit reach approximately 250 m. The third is the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which is mainly used to improve the accuracy of areas with complex terrain such as the edges of ice sheets or ice shelves. The CryoSat -2/SIRAL data products mainly include 0-level data, 1b-level data, 2-level data and high-level data. The Cryosat-2/SIRAL products consist of two files: an XML head file (.HDR) and a data product file (.DBL). The HDR file is an auxiliary ASCII file for fast identification and retrieval of the data files. 1b-level products are stored separately according to the measurement modes, and the data recording formats of different modes are also different. Each waveform in LRM mode and SAR mode has 128 sampling points, while that in SARIn mode has 512 sampling points. 2-level GDR products are available for most scientific applications, including measurement time, geographic location, altitude, and more. In addition, the altitude information in GDR products has been obtained through instrumental calibration, transmission delay corrections, geometric corrections, and geophysical corrections (such as atmospheric corrections and tidal corrections). The GDR products are single global full-track data, that is, the measurement results of the three modes. After different processing, they are combined in chronological order; thereby, the data recording formats are unified. The data in the three modes use different waveform retracking algorithms to obtain altitude values. In the latest updated Baseline C data, the LRM mode data use three algorithms: Refined CFI, UCL and Refined OCOG.

    2020-12-17 0 View Details

  • Surface DEM for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau (Version 1.0) (2003)

    The DEMs of the typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were provided by the bistatic InSAR method. The data were collected on November 21, 2013. It covered Puruogangri and west Qilian Mountains with a spatial resolution of 10 meters, and an elevation accuracy of 0.8 m which met the requirements of national 1:10 000 topographic mapping. Considering the characteristics of the bistatic InSAR in terms of imaging geometry and phase unwrapping, based on the TanDEM-X bistatic InSAR data, and adopting the improved SAR interference processing method, the surface DEMs of the two typical glaciers above were generated with high resolution and precision. The data set was in GeoTIFF format, and each typical glacial DEM was stored in a folder. For details of the data, please refer to the Surface DEMs for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau - Data Description.

    2020-12-09 0 View Details

  • The daily microwave precipitation dataset of Tibetan Plateau(2015-2017)

    The strong spatial and temporal changes of precipitation often make it impossible to accurately know the spatial distribution and intensity changes of precipitation during the precipitation observation of conventional foundation stations. Satellite microwave remote sensing can overcome this limitation and achieve global scale precipitation and cloud observation. Compared with infrared/visible light, which can only reflect cloud thickness and cloud height, microwave can penetrate the cloud, and also use the interaction between precipitation and cloud particles in the cloud and microwave to detect the cloud and rain more directly. This data use the surface precipitation, obtained by the DPR double wave band precipitation radar carried by GPM, as the true value, soil temperature/humidity of NDVI, DEM and ERA5 as reference data. And the multi-band passive brightness temperature data of GMI is used to invert the instantaneous precipitation intensity during the warm season (May-September) in Tibetan Plateau, then the result is re-sampled to the spatial resolution of 0.1°and accumulated them to a day.

    2020-11-17 0 View Details

  • China meteorological forcing dataset (1979-2018)

    The China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD) is a high spatial-temporal resolution gridded near-surface meteorological dataset that was developed specifically for studies of land surface processes in China. The dataset was made through fusion of remote sensing products, reanalysis dataset and in-situ observation data at weather stations. Its record starts from January 1979 and keeps extending (currently up to December 2018) with a temporal resolution of three hours and a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Seven near-surface meteorological elements are provided in CMFD, including 2-meter air temperature, surface pressure, specific humidity, 10-meter wind speed, downward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation and precipitation rate.

    2020-11-13 0 View Details

  • The mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) and permafrost thermal stability dataset over Tibetan Plateau for 2005-2015

    Mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at a depth of zero annual amplitude and permafrost thermal stability type are fundamental importance for engineering planning and design, ecosystem management in permafrost region. This dataset is produced by integrating remotely sensed freezing degree-days and thawing degree-days, snow cover days, leaf area index, soil bulk density, high-accuracy soil moisture data, and in situ MAGT measurements from 237 boreholes for the 2010s (2005-2015) on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) by using an ensemble learning method that employs a support vector regression (SVR) model based on distance-blocked resampling training data with 200 repetitions. Validation of the new permafrost map indicates that it is probably the most accurate of all available maps at present. The RMSE of MAGT is approximately 0.75 °C and the bias is approximately 0.01 °C. This map shows that the total area of permafrost on the TP is approximately 115.02 (105.47-129.59) *104 km2. The areas corresponding to the very stable, stable, semi-stable, transitional, and unstable types are 0.86*104 km2, 9.62*104 km2, 38.45*104 km2, 42.29*104 km2, and 23.80*104 km2, respectively. This new dataset is available for evaluate the permafrost change in the future on the TP as a baseline. More details can be found in Ran et al., (2020) that published at Science China Earth Sciences.

    2020-10-28 0 View Details

  • Global near-surface soil freeze/thaw state (2002-2019)

    The freezing / thawing state of near surface soil represents the dormancy and activity of land surface processes. This alternation of freezing and thawing phases can cause a series of complex surface process trajectory mode mutations, and affect the water cycle processes such as soil hydrothermal characteristics, surface runoff and groundwater recharge, and also affect climate change through water and energy cycle mechanism. This data set is based on AMSR-E and amsr2 passive microwave data, using discriminant algorithm to prepare global near earth surface freeze-thaw state (spatial resolution: 0.25 °; time span: 2002-2019), data storage type: 8-bit unsigned integer (file type:. HDF5) 5) Among them: 0: water body and missing data; 1: frozen soil; 2: thawed soil; 3: precipitation; 15: perennial snow and ice sheet. It can be used to analyze the spatial distribution and trend of the global freeze-thaw cycle, such as the start / end date, freezing / thawing duration, freezing range and other indicators. It can provide data support for understanding the interaction mechanism between land surface freeze-thaw cycle and water and energy exchange process under the background of global change. For detailed naming and missing of data, please refer to the data description.

    2020-10-20 0 View Details

  • Glacier height change data of QTP V1.0 (1970-2012)

    This product is based on multi-source remote sensing DEM data generation. The steps are as follows: select control points in relatively stable and flat terrain area with Landsat ETM +, SRTM and ICESat remote sensing data as reference. The horizontal coordinates of the control points are obtained with Landsat ETM + l1t panchromatic image as the horizontal reference. The height coordinates of the control points are mainly obtained by ICESat gla14 elevation data, and are supplemented by SRTM elevation data in areas without ICESat distribution. Using the selected control points and automatically generated connection points, the lens distortion and residual deformation are compensated by Brown's physical model, so that the total RMSE of all stereo image pairs in the aerial triangulation results is less than 1 pixel. In order to edit the extracted DEM data to eliminate the obvious elevation abnormal value, DEM Interpolation, DEM filtering and DEM smoothing are used to edit the DEM on the glacier, and kh-9 DEM data in the West Kunlun West and West Kunlun east regions are spliced to form products.

    2020-10-14 0 View Details

  • Solar radiation dataset in three poles (2001-2017)

    Solar radiation data were obtained using the internationally accepted solar radiation meter (LI200SZ, LI-COR, Inc., USA). The measured data are total solar radiation, including direct and diffuse solar radiation, with a wavelength range of 400-1100 nm. The units of the measurement results are W/㎡, and the typical error under natural lighting is ±3% (within an incident angle of 60°). Data from different locations in the three poles (Everest Station and Namco Station on the Tibetan Plateau, Sodankylä Station in the Arctic, and Dome A Station in the Antarctic) are derived from site cooperation and website downloads. The temporal coverage of data from the Everest Station and Namco Station on the Tibetan Plateau is from 2009 to 2016, that from the Sodankylä Station in the Arctic is from 2001 to 2017, and that from the Dome A Station in the Antarctic is from 2005 to 2014.

    2020-10-14 0 View Details

  • Aerosol optical properties ground-based observation data -- Namucuo station  Everest station, QTP V1.0 (2017-2019)

    The aerosol optical thickness data of Qomolangma station and Namuco station in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is based on the observation data products of Qomolangma station and Namuco station from the atmospheric radiation view of the Institute of Qinghai Tibet Plateau of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data coverage time is from 2017 to 2019, the time resolution is hour by hour, the coverage sites are Qomolangma station and Namuco station, the longitude and latitude coordinates are (Qomolangma station: 28.365n, 86.948e, Namuco station Mucuo station: 30.7725n, 90.9626e). The source of the observed data is retrieved from the radiation data observed by mfrsr instrument. The characteristic variable is aerosol optical thickness, and the error range of the observed inversion is about 15%. The data format is TXT.

    2020-10-14 0 View Details

  • The vegetation biomass data of the North Tibet transect(2017)

    Vegetation survey data is essential to study the structure and function of the ecosystems. The North Tibet is abundant in grassland ecosystems, including alpine meadow, alpine grassland, and alpine degraded grassland. Due to the unique geographical location, high altitude and anoxic environment, the community survey data in the North Tibetan Plateau is relatively rare. Based on the accumulation of preliminary work, the research team carried out a more comprehensive vegetation survey in 15 counties of the North Tibetan Plateau in the growing season of 2017. This data set includes biomass data inside and outside the fences of the 23 sampling plots from Nagqu to Ritu of the North Tibet Transect. This data set can be used for productivity spatial analysis and mode calibration.

    2020-10-14 0 View Details

  • The lake ice phenology dataset of the Northern Hemisphere (1978-2018)

    Lake ice phenology is a seasonal cyclical feature that describes lake ice coverage. The change of lake ice phenology is an important part of carbon, water and energy process study, and one of the sensitive factors of climate change. This dataset is a lake ice phenology based on passive microwave inversion, including lake ice phenology of 200 lakes in the Tibetan Plateau and high latitudes area of the Northern Hemisphere from 2002 to 2018 (including freeze-up start date, freeze-up end date, break-up start date, and break-up end date of the lakes), data of some lakes can date back to 1978. This data is basically consistent with the MODIS monitoring results from the same time with an interpretation error of 2-4 days. Users can use this data to conduct climate change study in the Northern Hemisphere.

    2020-10-13 0 View Details

  • The atmospheric heat source dataset of Tibetan Plateau based on satellites and stations (1984-2015)

    As the third pole of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has a significant impact on regional and global weather and climate as a heat source in spring and summer. In order to explore the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of multi-scale thermal forcing in different time on the plateau, it is necessary to establish a set of plateau heat source (collection) data based on observation data of continuous and reliable long-term observation. Based on the meteorological elements (surface temperature, surface air temperature, wind speed at the height of 10m, daily cumulative precipitation, etc.) of the 80 (32) observation stations on the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2016 (1960-2016) of China Meteorological Bureau, the sensible heat(SH) and latent heat(LH) was calculated. Meanwhile, using satellite data processing to obtain the net radiation flux (RC) from 1984 to 2015 on the plateau, and then a set of quality controlled long-term plateau heat source data was obtained. This data set considers the diurnal variation of the overall heat transfer coefficient when calculating the surface sensible heat flux.

    2020-10-12 0 View Details

  • Time series dataset of the long-term dry-wet index in Western China (AD1500-BP2000)

    Original information on the long-term dry-wet index (1500-2000) in western China is obtained by integrating data on dry-wet/drought-flood conditions and precipitation amounts in the western region published over more than a decade. The integrated data sets include tree rings, ice cores, lake sediments, historical materials, etc., and there are more than 50 such data sets. In addition to widely collecting representative data sets on dry-wet changes in the western region, this study also clarifies the main characteristics of the dry-wet changes and climate zones in the western region, and the long-term dry-wet index sequence was generated by extracting representative data from different zones. The data-based dry-wet index sequence has a 10-year temporal resolution for five major characteristic climate zones in the western region over nearly four hundred years and a high resolution (annual resolution) for three regions over the past five hundred years. The five major characteristic climate zones in the western region with a 10-year dry-wet index resolution over the last four hundred years are the arid regions, plateau bodies, northern Xinjiang, Hetao region, and northeastern plateau, and the three regions with a annual resolution over the last five hundred years are the northeastern plateau, Hetao region, and northern Xinjiang. For a detailed description of the data, please refer to the data file named Introduction of Dry-Wet Index Sequence Data for West China.doc.

    2020-10-09 0 View Details

  • Geocryological regionalization and classification map of the frozen soil in China (1:10,000,000) (2000)

    These data are digitized for the Geocryological Regionalization and Classification Map of the Frozen Soil in China (1:10 million) (Guoqing Qiu et al., 2000; Youwu Zhou et al., 2000), adopting a geocryological regionalization and classification dual series system. The geocryological regionalization system and classification system are used on the same map to reflect the commonality and individuality of the formation and distribution of frozen soil at each level. The geocryological regionalization system consists of three regions of frozen soil: (1) the frozen soil region of eastern China; (2) the frozen soil region of northwestern China; and (3) the frozen soil region of southwestern China (Tibetan Plateau). Based on the three large regions, 16 regions and several subregions are further divided. In the division of the geocryological boundary in the frozen soil area, the boundary between major regions I and III mainly consults the results of Bingyuan Li (1987). The boundary between major regions II and III is the northern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau, which is the Kunlun Mountains-Altun Mountains-Northern Qilian Mountains and the piedmont line. The boundary between major regions I and II is in the area of Helan Mountain-Langshan Mountain. The boundary of the secondary region is divided by the geomorphological conditions in regions II and III. However, in region I, it is mainly divided by the ratio of the annual temperature range A to the annual mean temperature T, and the frozen depths of various regions are taken into consideration. The classification system is divided into 8 types based on the continuity of frozen soil, the time of existence of frozen soil and the seasonal frozen depth. The various classifications of boundaries are mainly taken from the "Map of Snow, Ice and Frozen Ground in China" (1:4 million) (Yafeng Shi et al., 1988) and consult some new materials, whereas the seasonal frozen soil boundary is mainly based on the weather station data. The definitions of each classification are as follows: (1) Large permafrost: the continuous coefficient is 90%-70%; (2) Large-island permafrost: the continuous coefficient is 70%-30%; (3) Sparse island-shaped permafrost: the continuous coefficient is <30%; (4) Permafrost in the mountains; (5) Medium-season seasonal frozen soil: the maximum seasonal frozen depth that can be reached is >1 m; (6) Shallow seasonal frozen soil: the maximum seasonal frozen depth that can be reached is <1 m; (7) Short-term frozen soil: less than one month of storage time; and (8) Nonfrozen soil. According to the data, China's permafrost areas sum to approximately 2.19 × 106 km², accounting for 22.83% of China's territory. Among those areas, the mountain permafrost is found over 0.42×106 km2, which is 4.39% of the territory of China. The seasonal frozen soil area is approximately 4.76×106 km², accounting for 49.6% of China's territory, and the instantaneous frozen soil area is approximately 1.86×106 km², i.e., 19.33% of China's territory. For more information, please see the references (Youwu Zhou et al., 2000).

    2020-10-09 0 View Details

  • Inventory of glaciers in Pakistan (2003-2004)

    This dataset is the spatial distribution map of the marshes in the source area of the Yellow River near the Zaling Lake-Eling Lake, covering an area of about 21,000 square kilometers. The data set is classified by the Landsat 8 image through an expert decision tree and corrected by manual visual interpretation. The spatial resolution of the image is 30m, using the WGS 1984 UTM projected coordinate system, and the data format is grid format. The image is divided into five types of land, the land type 1 is “water body”, the land type 2 is “high-cover vegetation”, the land type 3 is “naked land”, and the land type 4 is “low-cover vegetation”, and the land type 5 is For "marsh", low-coverage vegetation and high-coverage vegetation are distinguished by vegetation coverage. The threshold is 0.1 to 0.4 for low-cover vegetation and 0.4 to 1 for high-cover vegetation.

    2020-10-09 0 View Details

  • Absorptive impurity data of snow and ice in Altay (2016-2017) v1.0

    Soluble organic carbon (DOC) in snow and ice can effectively absorb the solar radiation in the ultraviolet and near ultraviolet band, which is also one of the important factors leading to the enhancement of snow and ice ablation. Through the continuous snow samples from November 2016 to April 2017 in Altay area, the data of DOC, TN and BC of snow in kuwei station in Altay area were obtained through the experimental analysis and test with the instrument. The time resolution was weeks and the ablation period was daily. 1. Unit: Doc and TN unit μ g-1 (PPM), BC unit ng g-1 (ppb), MAC unit M2 g-1

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • The dataset of spatio-temporal water resources distribution in the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River (1998-2017)

    This data is a simulated output data set of 5km monthly hydrological data obtained by establishing the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River, using temperature, precipitation and pressure as input data, and GAME-TIBET data as verification data. The dataset includes grid runoff and evaporation (if the evaporation is less than 0, it means deposition; if the runoff is less than 0, it means that the precipitation in the month is less than evaporation). This data is a model based on the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model, and established by using temperature, and precipitation (from itp-forcing and CMA) as input data, GLASS, MODIA, AVHRR as vegetation data, and SOILGRID and FAO as soil parameters. And by the calibration and verification of runoff,soil temperature and soil humidity, the 5 km monthly grid runoff and evaporation in the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River from 1998 to 2017 was obtained. If asc can't open normally in arcmap, please delete the blacks space of the top 5 lines of the asc file.

    2020-09-30 0 View Details