The Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys ice velocity product is based on the Antarctic Ice Sheet Velocity and Mapping Project (AIV) data product, which is post-processed with advanced algorithms and numerical tools. The product is mapped using Sentinel-1/2/Landsat data and provides uniform, high-resolution (60m) ice velocity results for McMurdo Dry Valleys, covering the period from 2015 to 2020.
We propose an algorithm for ice crack identification and detection using u-net network, which can realize the automatic detection of Antarctic ice cracks. Based on the data of sentinel-1 EW from January to February every year, in order to suppress the speckle noise of SAR image, the probabilistic patch based weights (ppb) algorithm is selected for filtering, and then representative samples are selected and input into the u-net network for model training, and the ice cracks are predicted according to the trained model. Taking five typical ice shelves（Amery、Fimbul、Nickerson、Shackleton、Thwaiters) in Antarctica as an example, the average accuracy of classification results can reach 94.5%, of which the local accuracy of fissure area can reach 78.6%, and the recall rate is 89.4%.
As an important part of the global carbon pool, Arctic permafrost is one of the most sensitive regions to global climate change. The rate of warming in the Arctic is twice the global average, causing rapid changes in Arctic permafrost. The NDVI change data set of different types of permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere from 1982 to 2015 has a temporal resolution of every five years, covers the entire Arctic Rim countries, and a spatial resolution of 8km. Based on multi-source remote sensing, simulation, statistics and measured data, GIS method and ecological method are used to quantify the regulation and service function of permafrost in the northern hemisphere to the ecosystem, and all the data are subject to quality control.
Under the funding of the first project (Development of Multi-scale Observation and Data Products of Key Cryosphere Parameters) of the National Key Research and Development Program of China-"The Observation and Inversion of Key Parameters of Cryosphere and Polar Environmental Changes", the research group of Zhang, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, developed the snow depth downscaling product in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The snow depth downscaling data set for the Tibetan Plateau is derived from the fusion of snow cover probability dataset and Long-term snow depth dataset in China. The sub-pixel spatio-temporal downscaling algorithm is developed to downscale the original 0.25° snow depth dataset, and the 0.05° daily snow depth product is obtained. By comparing the accuracy evaluation of the snow depth product before and after downscaling, it is found that the root mean square error of the snow depth downscaling product is 0.61 cm less than the original product. The details of the product information of the Downscaling of Snow Depth Dataset for the Tibetan Plateau (2000-2018) are as follows. The projection is longitude and latitude, the spatial resolution is 0.05° (about 5km), and the time is from September 1, 2000 to September 1, 2018. It is a TIF format file. The naming rule is SD_yyyyddd.tif, where yyyy represents year and DDD represents Julian day (001-365). Snow depth (SD), unit: centimeter (cm). The spatial resolution is 0.05°. The time resolution is day by day.
The Antarctic ice sheet elevation data were generated from radar altimeter data (Envisat RA-2) and lidar data (ICESat/GLAS). To improve the accuracy of the ICESat/GLAS data, five different quality control indicators were used to process the GLAS data, filtering out 8.36% unqualified data. These five quality control indicators were used to eliminate satellite location error, atmospheric forward scattering, saturation and cloud effects. At the same time, dry and wet tropospheric, correction, solid tide and extreme tide corrections were performed on the Envisat RA-2 data. For the two different elevation data, an elevation relative correction method based on the geometric intersection of Envisat RA-2 and GLAS data spot footprints was proposed, which was used to analyze the point pairs of GLAS footprints and Envisat RA-2 data center points, establish the correlation between the height difference of these intersection points (GLAS-RA-2) and the roughness of the terrain relief, and perform the relative correction of the Envisat RA-2 data to the point pairs with stable correlation. By analyzing the altimetry density in different areas of the Antarctic ice sheet, the final DEM resolution was determined to be 1000 meters. Considering the differences between the Prydz Bay and the inland regions of the Antarctic, the Antarctic ice sheet was divided into 16 sections. The best interpolation model and parameters were determined by semivariogram analysis, and the Antarctic ice sheet elevation data with a resolution of 1000 meters were generated by the Kriging interpolation method. The new Antarctic DEM was verified by two kinds of airborne lidar data and GPS data measured by multiple Antarctic expeditions of China. The results showed that the differences between the new DEM and the measured data ranged from 3.21 to 27.84 meters, and the error distribution was closely related to the slope.
The proportion data set of daily cloudless MODIS snow cover area in babaohe river basin (2008.1.1-2014.6.1) was obtained after cloud removal processing using a cloud removal algorithm based on cubic spline function interpolation on the basis of daily cloudless MODIS snow cover product-mod10a1 (tang zhiguang, 2013). This data set adopts the projection method of UTM (horizontal axis isometric cutting cylinder), with a spatial resolution of 500m, and provides Daily Snow Albedo daily-sad results for the babao river basin.The data set is a daily file from January 1, 2008 to June 1, 2014.Each file is the snow albedo result of the day, with a value of 0-100 (%), is the ENVI standard file, and the naming rule is: mod10a1.ayyyyddd_h25v05_snow_sad_grid_2d_reproj_babaohe_nocloud.img, where YYYY represents the year, DDD stands for Julian day (001-365/366).The file can be opened directly with ENVI or ARCMAP software. The original MODIS snow cover data products processed by declouding are derived from MOD10A1 products processed by the us national snow and ice data center (NSIDC). This data set is in HDF format and USES sinusoidal projection. The attributes of the cloud-free MODIS albedo data set (2008.1.1-2014.1.1) in babaohe river basin are composed of the spatial and temporal resolution, projection information and data format of the dataset.
The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in the arid region hydrological experimental area on Sep. 19, 2007 during the pre-observation period. One scene of Envisat ASAR image was captured on Sep. 19. The data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:29 BJT. Those provide reliable ground data for remote sensing retrieval and validation of soil moisture from Envisat ASAR image. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture measured by the cutting ring method in Linze reed land, Zhangye farmland, Zhangye gobi, Linze maize land, Linze alfalfa land, Zhangye weather station, and Linze wetland. (2) GPS measured by GARMIN GPS 76 (3) vegetation measurements including the vegetation height, the green weight, the dry weight, the sampling method, and descriptions on the land type, uniformity and dry and wet conditions (4) atmospheric parameters at Daman Water Management office measured by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in .k7 and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMetext files (.txt) is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) archived as Excel files are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (5) roughness measured by the roughness plate together with the digital camera. The coordinates of the sample would be got with the help of ArcView; and after geometric correction, surface height standard deviation (cm) and correlation length (cm) could be acquired based on the formula listed on pages 234-236, Microwave Remote Sensing (Vol. II). The roughness data were initialized by the sample name, which was followed by the serial number, the name of the file, standard deviation and correlation length. Each text files (.txt) file is matched with one sample photo and standard deviation and correlation length represent the roughness. In addition, the length of 101 radius is also included for further checking.
The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in No. 1, 2 and 3 quadrates of the A'rou foci experimental area on Jul. 14, 2008. The Envisat ASAR data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:31 BJT. The quadrates were divided into 4×4 subsites, with each one spanning a 30×30 m2 plot. Those provide reliable ground data for retrieval and validation of soil moisture from active remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture by POGO soil sensor in No. 1, 2 and 3 quadrates; 25 corner points of each subsite were chosen for the soil temperature, soil volumetric moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, and the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity; (2) the soil temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer 3# and 5# from BNU in No. 1 quadrate, 1# and 4# in No. 2 quadrate, and 2# and 6# in No. 3 quadrate; 25 corner points of each subsite were measured twice by two groups, and time, the maximum, the minimum and the mean value, and the land cover types were all recorded. (3) spectrum of the grassland, the bare land and the stellera by the thermal infrared spectrometer, 102F. The dataset includes ASAR images, preprocessed data of the thermal infrared spectrometer, 102F, the surface temperature and soil moisture synchronizing with Envisat ASAR.
The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 15, 2008. The Envisat ASAR data were acquired in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:34 BJT. Observation items included: (1) Snow density, snow complex permittivity, snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture by the snowfork in BG-B, BG-D, BG-E and BG-F; (2) Snow parameters including the snow surface temperature and the snow-soil interface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer, the snow layer temperature by the probe thermometer, the snow grain size by the handheld microscope, snow density by the aluminum case, snow depth by the ruler, and the snow surface temperature synchronizing with ASAR in BG-H, BG-D, BG-E and BG-F; (3) The snow spectrum by the portable ASD (Xinjiang Meteorological Administration) synchronizing with ASAR in BG-H15; the major and minor axis and shape of the snow layer grain through the self-made snow sieve. Two files including raw data and the preprocessed data were archived.
The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 17, 2008. Observation items included: (1) Snow parameters as snow depth by the ruler, the snow layer temperature by the probe thermometer, the snow grain size by the handheld microscope, the snow surface temperature and the snow-soil interface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer simultaneous with the satellite in BG-A, BG-E, BG-F and BG-H. (2) Snow density, snow complex permittivity, snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture by the Snowfork in BG-A, BG-E and BG-H. Besides, 25-hour fixed-point continuous observation was carried out at the Binggou cold region hydrometerological station. (3) The snow spectrum by ASD (Xinjiang Meteorological Administration) (4) Snow albedo by the total radiometer Two files including raw data and preprocessed data were archived.
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