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HiWATER:The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(automatic meteorological station of No.12)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.12 in the flux observation matrix from 10 May to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.36631° E, 38.86515° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Daman irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1559.25 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45D; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed and direction (034B; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (ECh2o-5; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFT3; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.


WATER: Dataset of GPS radiosonde observations

The dataset of GPS radiosonde observations was obtained at an interval of 2 seconds in the cold region hydrology experimental area in March, 2008 and the arid region hydrology experimental area from May to July, 2008. The items were the air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, the dew temperature, the water vapor mixing ratio, latitudinal and longitudinal wind speeds, the wind speed and direction. Simultaneous with the satellite/airplane overpass, GPS radiosonde observations were carried out: Binggou watershed on Mar. 14, A'rou on Mar. 15, Binggou watershed on Mar. 15, Biandukou on Mar. 17, Binggou watershed on Mar. 22, Binggou watershed on Mar. 29, and A'rou on Apr. 1 for the upper stream experiments; Linze grassland station on May 30, Yingke oasis on Jun.1, Huazhaizi desert station on Jun. 4, Linze grassland station on Jun. 5, Linze grassland station on Jun. 6, Huazhaizi desert station on Jun. 16, Yingke oasis on Jun. 29, Binggou watershed on Jul. 5, Yingke oasis on Jul. 7, Linze grassland station on Jul. 11, and Yingke oasis at 0, 4:10, 8:09, and 12:09 on Jul. 14 for middle stream experiments.