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The meteorological data of Mt. Qomolangma, Namco, and Linzhi Stations on the Tibetan Plateau (2006-2008)

The data set collects the long-term monitoring data on atmosphere, hydrology and soil from the Integrated Observation and Research Station of Multisphere in Namco, the Integrated Observation and Research Station of Atmosphere and Environment in Mt. Qomolangma, and the Integrated Observation and Research Station of the Alpine Environment in Southeast Tibet. The data have three resolutions, which include 0.1 seconds, 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and 24 hours. The temperature, humidity and pressure sensors used in the field atmospheric boundary layer tower (PBL) were provided by Vaisala of Finland. The wind speed and direction sensor was provided by MetOne of the United States. The radiation sensor was provided by APPLEY of the United States and EKO of Japan. Gas analysis instrument was provided by Licor of the United States, and the soil moisture content, ultrasonic anemometer and data collector were provided by CAMPBELL of the United States. The observing system is maintained by professionals on a regular basis (2-3 times a year), the sensors are calibrated and replaced, and the collected data are downloaded and reorganized to meet the meteorological observation specifications of the National Weather Service and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The data set was processed by forming a time continuous sequence after the raw data were quality-controlled, and the quality control included eliminating the systematic error caused by missing data and sensor failure.

2019-09-14

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)-Dataset of flux observation matrix (No.11 eddy covariance system)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from site No.11 eddy covariance system (EC) in the flux observation matrix from May 29 to September 18, 2012. The site (100.34197° E, 38.86991° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1575.65 m. The EC was installed at a height of 3.5 m; the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500) was 0.15 m. Raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. Moreover, the observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), which was proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), representing high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day; the missing data were replaced with -6999. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-14

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of mixed forest station, 2013)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the mixed forest station eddy covariance system (EC) in the lower reaches of the Heihe hydrometeorological observation network from 12 July to 31 December, 2013. The site (101.134° E, 41.990° N) was located in the Populus and Tamarix surface, Ejin Banner in Inner Mongolia. The elevation is 874 m. The EC was installed at a height of 22 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500) was 0.17 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), as proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), which represent high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened using a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.2 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. Due to the malfunction of sonic anemometer, data during 16 August to 17 September were missing. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Li et al. (2013) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-14

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with Envisat ASAR in the arid region hydrological experimental area during the pre-observation period on Sep. 19, 2007

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in the arid region hydrological experimental area on Sep. 19, 2007 during the pre-observation period. One scene of Envisat ASAR image was captured on Sep. 19. The data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:29 BJT. Those provide reliable ground data for remote sensing retrieval and validation of soil moisture from Envisat ASAR image. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture measured by the cutting ring method in Linze reed land, Zhangye farmland, Zhangye gobi, Linze maize land, Linze alfalfa land, Zhangye weather station, and Linze wetland. (2) GPS measured by GARMIN GPS 76 (3) vegetation measurements including the vegetation height, the green weight, the dry weight, the sampling method, and descriptions on the land type, uniformity and dry and wet conditions (4) atmospheric parameters at Daman Water Management office measured by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in .k7 and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMetext files (.txt) is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) archived as Excel files are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (5) roughness measured by the roughness plate together with the digital camera. The coordinates of the sample would be got with the help of ArcView; and after geometric correction, surface height standard deviation (cm) and correlation length (cm) could be acquired based on the formula listed on pages 234-236, Microwave Remote Sensing (Vol. II). The roughness data were initialized by the sample name, which was followed by the serial number, the name of the file, standard deviation and correlation length. Each text files (.txt) file is matched with one sample photo and standard deviation and correlation length represent the roughness. In addition, the length of 101 radius is also included for further checking.

2019-09-13

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix (NO.2 large aperture scintillometer)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at site No.2 in the flux observation matrix. There were two types of LASs at site No.2: German BLS900 and German BLS450. The observation periods were from 7 June to 19 September, 2012, and 18 June to 19 September, 2012, for the BLS900 and the BLS450, respectively. The north tower is placed with the receiver of BLS900 and the transmitter of BLS450, and the south tower is placed with the transmitter of BLS900 and the receiver of BLS450. The site (north: 100.363° E, 38.883° N; south: 100.362° E, 38.857° N) was located in the Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1552.75 m. The underlying surface between the two towers contains corn, greenhouse, and village. The effective height of the LASs was 33.45 m; the path length was 2841 m. Data were sampled at 1 min intervals. Raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality-controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The main quality control steps were as follows. (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 was beyond the saturated criterion (Cn2>4.08E-14). (2) Data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small (BLS900: Average X Intensity<1000; BLS450: Minimum X<50). (3) Data were rejected within 1 h of precipitation. (4) Data were rejected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). The sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining with meteorological data and based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. There were several instructions for the released data. (1) The data were primarily obtained from BLS900 measurements; missing flux measurements from the BLS900 were filled with measurements from the BLS450. Missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: data/time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H_LAS, W/m^2). (3) In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-13

WATER: Dataset of LAS (Large Aperture Scintillometer) observations at the Linze grassland station from May to Aug ,2008

The dataset of LAS (Large Aperture Scintillometer, made in Holland) observations was obtained in the Linze grassland station, Linze county (Gansu province), from May 19 to Aug. 31, 2008. The instrument was composed of the transmitter (100°04′10.4″E, 39°15′02.8″N, 9.25m), the receiver (100°03′36.8″E, 39°15′02.8″N, 9.1m) and the data acquisition system. The transmitter and the receiver were 1550m away from each other and the operating altitude was 9.2m. The observation item was natural logarithm of structural parameters of the refractive index (UCn2). The transmitting frequency was 0.5HZ. The data were named after WATER_LAS_Linze_yyyymmdd-yyyymmdd.csv (yyyymmdd-yyyymmdd for observation time). The missing data were marked "None". For more detailed information, please refer to Directions on LAS (Large Aperture Scintillometer) observations.

2019-09-13

WATER: Dataset of meteorological station observations at the Yeniugou cold region hydrological station (2008-2009)

The dataset of meteorological station observations (2008-2009) was obtained at the Yeniugou cold region hydrological station (E99°33'/N38°28', 3320m), Qilian county, Qinghai province. Observation items were multilayer (2m and 10m) of the air temperature and air humidity, the wind speed and direction, the air pressure, precipitation, the global radiation, the net radiation, the multilayer soil temperature (20cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm), soil moisture (20cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm), and soil heat flux. For more details, please refer to the attached Data Directions.

2019-09-13

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (large aperture scintillometer of A’rou Superstation, 2013)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at A’rou Superstation in the hydrometeorological observation network of Heihe River Basin between 14 October, 2012, and 31 December, 2013. There were two types of LASs at A’rou Superstation: German BLS450 and China zzlas. The north tower was set up with the zzlas receiver and the BLS450 transmitter, and the south tower was equipped with the zzlas transmitter and the BLS450 receiver. Zzlas has been in use since 14 October, 2012, and the observation period of BLS450 was from 9 August to 10 December, 2013. The site (north: 100.467° E, 38.050° N; south: 100.450° E, 38.033° N) was located in Caodaban village of A’rou town in Qilian county, Qinghai Province. The underlying surface between the two towers was alpine meadow. The elevation is 3033 m. The effective height of the LASs was 9.5 m, and the path length was 2390 m. The data were sampled at 5 Hz and 1 Hz intervals for BLS450 and zzlas, respectively, and then averaged over 1 min. The raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods, in which sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining Cn2 with meteorological data according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The main quality control steps were as follows: (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 exceeded the saturated criterion (BLS450: Cn2>7.25E-14, zzlas: Cn2>7.84E-14). (2) The data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small (BLS450: Average X Intensity<1000; zzlas: Demod>-20 mv). (3) The data were rejected when collected during precipitation. (4) The data were rejected if collected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). In the iteration process, the universal functions of Thiermann and Grassl, 1992 and Andreas, 1988 were selected for BLS450 and zzlas, respectively. Several instructions were included with the released data. (1) The data were primarily obtained from BLS450 measurements, and missing flux measurements from the BLS450 instrument were substituted with measurements from the zzlas instrument. The missing data were denoted by -6999. Due to the drift of the zzlas signal, data from 10 November to 23 November, 2012, and 14 March to 10 April, 2013, were excluded. Due to the LAS tower’s lean, the data from 10 April to 31 May, 2013, were not collected. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: data/time (yyyy-m-d h:mm), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H_LAS, W/m^2). In this dataset, a time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30, and the data were stored in *.xls format. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Li et al. (2013) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-13

HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (No.14 eddy covariance system) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (2012)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from site No.14 eddy covariance system (EC) in the flux observation matrix from 30 May to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.35310° E, 38.85867° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1570.23 m. The EC was installed at a height of 4.6 m; the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500) was 0.15 m. Raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. Moreover, the observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), which was proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), representing high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day; the missing data were replaced with -6999. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-13

HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (No.8 eddy covariance system) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (2012)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from site No.8 eddy covariance system (EC) in the flux observation matrix from 28 May to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.37649° E, 38.87254° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1550.06 m. The EC was installed at a height of 3.2 m; the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500) was 0.15 m. Raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. Moreover, the observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), which was proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), representing high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day; the missing data were replaced with -6999. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-13