The Antarctic ice sheet elevation data were generated from radar altimeter data (Envisat RA-2) and lidar data (ICESat/GLAS). To improve the accuracy of the ICESat/GLAS data, five different quality control indicators were used to process the GLAS data, filtering out 8.36% unqualified data. These five quality control indicators were used to eliminate satellite location error, atmospheric forward scattering, saturation and cloud effects. At the same time, dry and wet tropospheric, correction, solid tide and extreme tide corrections were performed on the Envisat RA-2 data. For the two different elevation data, an elevation relative correction method based on the geometric intersection of Envisat RA-2 and GLAS data spot footprints was proposed, which was used to analyze the point pairs of GLAS footprints and Envisat RA-2 data center points, establish the correlation between the height difference of these intersection points (GLAS-RA-2) and the roughness of the terrain relief, and perform the relative correction of the Envisat RA-2 data to the point pairs with stable correlation. By analyzing the altimetry density in different areas of the Antarctic ice sheet, the final DEM resolution was determined to be 1000 meters. Considering the differences between the Prydz Bay and the inland regions of the Antarctic, the Antarctic ice sheet was divided into 16 sections. The best interpolation model and parameters were determined by semivariogram analysis, and the Antarctic ice sheet elevation data with a resolution of 1000 meters were generated by the Kriging interpolation method. The new Antarctic DEM was verified by two kinds of airborne lidar data and GPS data measured by multiple Antarctic expeditions of China. The results showed that the differences between the new DEM and the measured data ranged from 3.21 to 27.84 meters, and the error distribution was closely related to the slope.
The DEMs of the typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were provided by the bistatic InSAR method. The data were collected on November 21, 2013. It covered Puruogangri and west Qilian Mountains with a spatial resolution of 10 meters, and an elevation accuracy of 0.8 m which met the requirements of national 1:10 000 topographic mapping. Considering the characteristics of the bistatic InSAR in terms of imaging geometry and phase unwrapping, based on the TanDEM-X bistatic InSAR data, and adopting the improved SAR interference processing method, the surface DEMs of the two typical glaciers above were generated with high resolution and precision. The data set was in GeoTIFF format, and each typical glacial DEM was stored in a folder. For details of the data, please refer to the Surface DEMs for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau - Data Description.
The landform near Qilian in the upper reaches of Heihe River includes the first level denudation surface (wide valley surface) and the Ninth level river terrace. The stage surface distribution data is mainly obtained through field investigation. GPS survey is carried out for the distribution range of all levels of geomorphic surface. The field data is analyzed in the room, and then combined with remote sensing image, topographic map, geological map and other data, the distribution map of all levels of geomorphic surface in the upper reaches of Heihe river is drawn. The age of the denudation surface is about 1.4ma, and the formation of Heihe terrace is later than this age, all of which are terraces since late Pleistocene.
DEM (digital elevation model) is the abbreviation of digital elevation model, which is an important original data for watershed terrain and feature recognition. The principle of DEM is to divide the watershed into M rows and N columns of quadrilateral (cell), calculate the average elevation of each quadrilateral, and then store the elevation in a two-dimensional matrix. Because DEM data can reflect the local terrain features of a certain resolution, a large amount of surface morphology information can be extracted by DEM, which includes the slope, slope direction and the relationship between cells of watershed grid unit . At the same time, the surface water flow path, river network and watershed boundary can be determined by certain algorithm. Therefore, to extract basin features from DEM, a good basin structure model is the premise and key of the design algorithm.
Chinese Cryospheric Information System is a comprehensive information system for the management and analysis of cryospheric data over China. The establishment of Chinese Cryospheric Information System is to meet the needs of earth system science, and provide parameters and verification data for the development of response and feedback models of permafrost, glacier and snow cover to global changes under GIS framework. On the other hand, the system collates and rescues valuable cryospheric data to provide a scientific, efficient and safe management and analysis tool. Chinese Cryospheric Information System selected three regions with different spatial scales as its main research areas to highlight the research focus. The research area along the Qinghai-Tibet highway is mainly about 700 kilometers long from Xidatan to Naqu, and 20 to 30 kilometers wide on both sides of the highway. The datasets of the Tibetan highway contains the following types of data: 1. Cryosphere data.Including: snow depth distribution. 2. Natural environment and resources.Include: Digital elevation topography (DEM) : elevation elevation, elevation zoning, slope and slope direction; Fundamental geology: Quatgeo 3. Boreholes: drilling data of 200 boreholes along the qinghai-tibet highway. Engineering geological profile (CAD) : lithologic distribution, water content, grain fraction data, etc 4. Model of glacier mass equilibrium distribution along qinghai-tibet highway: prediction of frozen soil grid data. The graphic data along the qinghai-tibet highway includes 13 map scales of 1:250,000.The grid size is 100×100m. For details, please refer to the documents (in Chinese): "Chinese Cryospheric Information System design. Doc", "Chinese Cryospheric Information System data dictionary. Doc", "Database of the Tibetan highway. Doc".
SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) is by NASA and the national geospatial intelligence agency (NGA) cooperation to build the global 3 d graphics data project.In February 2000, the SRTM system mounted on the U.S. space shuttle endeavour collected radar image data between latitude 60 ° north and latitude 57 ° south, and acquired radar image data covering more than 80% of the world's land surface.After more than two years of processing, the digital terrain elevation model was made. This data set including the heihe river basin SRTM points picture and Mosaic two kinds of data, and the points of the graph is SRTM version 4 data by the CGIAR - CSI (international centre for tropical agriculture, http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/) treatment, compared with the previous version has greatly improved, including: 1) use a lot of interpolation algorithm, 2) use more auxiliary DEM data to fill the blank spots and blank area, 3) compared with the third version of the data and migration half a yuan.The Mosaic map is obtained by splicing on the basis of sub-map. The sub-charts include srtm_56_04,srtm_56_05,srtm_57_04 and srtm_57_054. The data are 16 bit values representing the elevation value (-/+/32767 m). The maximum positive elevation is 9000 m and the maximum negative elevation is 12,000 m below sea level.Null data is identified by -32767.Divide the file into 24 rows (-60 to 60 degrees) and 72 columns (-180 to 180 degrees) per 5 latitude and longitude squares.
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a kind of solid ground Model that represents the ground Elevation in the form of a set of ordered numerical arrays. The arctic region within 66 ° 34 'refers to the arctic regions and parts of Greenland in the arctic.Elevation data include arctic digital dem and hillshade data in tif format.Range of 66 ° ~ 90 ° N N, the spatial resolution of 0.008 ° x 0.008 °. The data is downloaded from NASA global elevation data DEM describes ground elevation information, which is widely used in surveying and mapping, hydrology, meteorology, geomorphology, geology, soil, engineering construction, communication, military and other fields of national economy and national defense as well as humanities and natural sciences.
ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM) is a global digital elevation data product jointly released by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) .The DEM data is based on the observation results of the new generation of Earth observation satellite TERRA Completed, it is produced by 1.3 million stereo pair data collected by ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radio meter) sensors, and its coverage area exceeds 99% of the earth's land surface. The data has a horizontal accuracy of 30 meters (95% confidence) and an elevation accuracy of 20 meters (95% confidence). This data is the third global elevation data, which is a significant improvement over the previous SRTM3 DEM and GTOPO30 data. ASTER GDEM released two versions. The first version was released in June 2009 and the second version was released in October 2011. Compared with the first version, the second version has make further progress in water coverage and deviation removal. The quality of the data has been greatly improved. This dataset is the second version of the ASTER GDEM dataset in the Shule River Basin, including DEM, mountain shadow, slope, and aspect data. Spatial resolution: 1 radian second (about 30 meters), accuracy: vertical accuracy of 20 meters, horizontal accuracy of 30 meters.
Ⅰ. Overview The SRTM (Space Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapping Mission) was performed by NASA, the Geospatial Intelligence Agency, and German and Italian space agencies in February 2002. A total of 222 hours and 23 minutes of data collection was performed by the US space shuttle Endeavour onboard the SRTM system, and 9.8 trillion bytes of radar images were collected between 60 degrees in North America and 56 degrees in south latitude with an area of more than 119 million km2 Data, Fei changed more than 80% of the earth's surface, this data set covers the entire territory of China. It took two years to process, and finally obtained a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a plane longitude of ± 20m and an elevation longitude of ± 16m. Ⅱ. Data processing description The processing of SRTM data is done by the Ground Data Processing System (GDPS). The GDPS consists of three parts: (1) an interferometric processor, which uses the interferometric processor to convert the data into elevation maps and radar image bands; (2) a mosaic processor, which is used to compile collected global airborne data Draw a mosaic map of continental elevation data and images; (3) Verification system is responsible for checking the quality of the mosaic map and providing accuracy maps. These processors are currently installed on JPL workstations, and the next step is to install them on a set of supercomputers for the systematic processing of real SRTM data. As this work progresses, JPL will release auxiliary data to the work. Ⅲ. Data content description SRTM data provides a file for each latitude and longitude grid. There are two types of longitude: 1 arc-second and 3 arc-second. Called SRTM1 and SRTM3, or 30m and 90m data. This dataset uses SRTM3 data with 90m resolution. Each file contains elevation data of 1201 × 1201 sampling points. The data format is DEM format. The spatial position of each picture frame is shown in the attached picture (1-25 thousand pictures in the country). Ⅳ. Data usage description SRTM data has computable and visual functions, and has broad application prospects in various fields, especially in the fields of surveying and mapping, surface deformation, and military. Specifically, it mainly includes the following aspects: In scientific research, SRTM data plays a very important role in geology, geophysics, seismic research, level modeling, volcano monitoring, and registration of remote sensing images. Using high-precision digital terrain elevation data to build a three-dimensional three-dimensional model of the ground, which is superimposed on the ground image, can observe slight changes in the earth's surface. In civil and industrial applications, SRTM data can be used for civil engineering calculations, reservoir dam site selection, land use planning, etc. In terms of communications, digital terrain data can help businesses build better broadcast towers and determine the best In terms of aviation safety, the use of SRTM digital elevation data can establish an enhanced aircraft landing alarm system, which greatly improves the aircraft landing safety factor. In the military, SRTM data is the basic information platform of C4ISR (Army Automatic Command System). It is necessary to study the structure of the battlefield, the direction of the battlefield, the presetting of the battlefield, the deployment of operations, the concentration of forces in the delivery, the protection conditions, and logistics support Essential.
Adopt aster with 30 meter resolution provided by Heihe project data management center GDEM data and 90 meter resolution SRTM data are two sets of grid data, as well as multi-source point data. These point data include radar point cloud elevation data in the middle and upper reaches; elevation data extracted from soil sample points and vegetation sample in the data management center of Heihe plan; elevation data extracted from climate and hydrological stations; and elevation sample data measured by the research group. By using the HASM scaling up algorithm, the grid data of different sources and different precision are fused with the elevation point data to obtain the high-precision DEM data of Heihe River Basin. First of all, the accuracy of two groups of grid data is verified by using various point data. According to the results of accuracy verification, different grid data are used as the trend surface of data fusion in different regions. The residuals of various point data and trend surface are calculated, and the residual surface is obtained by interpolation with HASM algorithm, and the trend surface and residual surface are superposed to obtain the final DEM surface. The spatial resolution is 500 meters.
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LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center
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